Hormonal contraception today, for many couples is the foundation of safe sex
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. This is the most convenient way to prevent unintended pregnancy, but it is suitable only for those women who have permanent partners (this method does not prevent sexually transmitted infections).
Woman's menstrual cycle as the basis of hormonal contraception
Nature has given women a unique mechanism - the menstrual cycle, which monthly creates all necessary conditions for conception. This happens with the help of hormones that stimulate or suppress certain structures in women at different periods of time.
All the menstrual cycle - this time from the first day of this menstruation to the first day of the next. He went every woman differently, usually from 21 to 36 days and is divided into the following phases:
- the first phase - a first half-cycle (typically the first 14-15 days, but each woman different); During this period her body actively influence the female sex hormones estrogen and follicle-stimulating hormone pituitary (FSH), under whose influence in the ovary matures the egg (it is located in a special bottle or follicle) and expands the mucous membrane of the uterus to accept the embryo;
- The second phase - ovulation (release of an egg from the follicle into the fallopian tubes); this occurs when the egg is fully mature (day 14-15), at which time stops production of FSH and begins to stand out other pituitary hormone - luteinizing (LH) to follicle ruptures, the egg is released into the abdominal cavity;
- the third phase - the second half of the menstrual cycle, with 14-15 on the first day of the menstrual cycle; on the site of the follicle occurs endocrine gland - the corpus luteum, which produces the hormone progesterone begins
Progesterone - norm and pathology
; Progesterone prepares a woman's body for pregnancy and contributes to its preservation.
The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives
Hormonal contraceptives - a synthetic female sex hormones, which in its chemical structure, correspond to the natural sex hormones - estrogen and progesterone.
Synthetic hormones in multiple inhibit formation of pituitary LH and FSH, which in turn inhibits the maturation of the ovarian follicles and ovulation
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(release of an egg from the ovary for fertilization). Synthetic hormones also contribute to an increase in the viscosity of mucus produced by the mucosa of the cervix, which reduces its permeability to spermatozoa.
Types of hormonal contraceptives
The first hormonal contraceptives have been made about fifty years ago, they contained high doses of hormones and provided a lot of side effects. Today malodozirovannye produced enough safe and effective hormonal contraceptives, of which almost always possible to choose the drug that is most appropriate for this woman.
Hormonal contraceptives are of various kinds. One component hormonal contraceptives contain one type hormones (usually estrogen analogues), while all the tablets containing the same dosage of hormones, i.e. drugs in this series are monophasic. Combined preparations contain two kinds of synthetic hormones (estrogen and progesterone analogues), it may be either monophasic (with one and the de-dose tablets in all) and the two three-phase, with different ratios of doses in tablets. In that case the tablets are colored and adopted in accordance with the phase of the menstrual cycle.
Hormonal contraception is suitable only for the orderly and disciplined women as wrong irregular intake can negate all the efforts for the prevention of unwanted pregnancies.
Receiving one component of hormonal contraceptives is allowed to hold only 3 hours, combined - for 12 hours.
Hormonal contraceptives appoint a gynecologist after a preliminary examination of the woman, whose goal is to identify contraindications to hormonal contraception.
Indications and contraindications for hormonal contraceptives
Indications for use of hormonal contraceptives is to prevent unwanted pregnancies and the absence of contraindications to their reception.
Contraindications for hormonal contraceptives are increased sensitivity to a particular contraceptive, pregnancy, tumors (hormones stimulate the growth of cells), severe diseases of internal organs in violation of their function, blood clotting disorders, endocrine diseases (diabetes, obesity, etc.), uterine bleeding , of unknown etiology (cause), age over 35 years. If a woman has some hearing loss, before taking hormonal contraceptives should consult with an otolaryngologist: their reception is contraindicated in otosclerosis.
Side effects that occur while taking hormonal contraceptives
Modern hormonal contraceptives provide a minimum of side effects, but bona fide pharmaceutical companies are always their point.
When you receive a number of different drugs can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
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, Headache, depressed mood (depression), pain and breast tenderness, weight gain, swelling, change in sexual desire, impaired vision and hearing loss, allergic reactions, inflammation of the walls of the veins (thrombophlebitis), increased blood pressure.
The modern woman can always by a gynecologist to pick up a hormonal contraceptive, which is more suited to her body.