Hormonal contraception: Modern birth control pills

October 31, 2010

 Modern birth control pills
 Hormonal contraception today, for many couples is the foundation of safe sex Safe Sex - Myth or Reality?  Safe Sex - Myth or Reality?
 . This is the most convenient way to prevent unintended pregnancy, but it is suitable only for those women who have permanent partners (this method does not prevent sexually transmitted infections).

 Hormonal contraception: Modern birth control pills

Woman's menstrual cycle as the basis of hormonal contraception

Nature has given women a unique mechanism - the menstrual cycle, which monthly creates all necessary conditions for conception. This happens with the help of hormones that stimulate or suppress certain structures in women at different periods of time.

All the menstrual cycle - this time from the first day of this menstruation to the first day of the next. He went every woman differently, usually from 21 to 36 days and is divided into the following phases:

  • the first phase - a first half-cycle (typically the first 14-15 days, but each woman different); During this period her body actively influence the female sex hormones estrogen and follicle-stimulating hormone pituitary (FSH), under whose influence in the ovary matures the egg (it is located in a special bottle or follicle) and expands the mucous membrane of the uterus to accept the embryo;
  • The second phase - ovulation (release of an egg from the follicle into the fallopian tubes); this occurs when the egg is fully mature (day 14-15), at which time stops production of FSH and begins to stand out other pituitary hormone - luteinizing (LH) to follicle ruptures, the egg is released into the abdominal cavity;
  • the third phase - the second half of the menstrual cycle, with 14-15 on the first day of the menstrual cycle; on the site of the follicle occurs endocrine gland - the corpus luteum, which produces the hormone progesterone begins Progesterone - norm and pathology  Progesterone - norm and pathology
 ; Progesterone prepares a woman's body for pregnancy and contributes to its preservation.

 Hormonal contraception: Modern birth control pills

The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives

Hormonal contraceptives - a synthetic female sex hormones, which in its chemical structure, correspond to the natural sex hormones - estrogen and progesterone.

Synthetic hormones in multiple inhibit formation of pituitary LH and FSH, which in turn inhibits the maturation of the ovarian follicles and ovulation Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?  Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?
   (release of an egg from the ovary for fertilization). Synthetic hormones also contribute to an increase in the viscosity of mucus produced by the mucosa of the cervix, which reduces its permeability to spermatozoa.

 Hormonal contraception: Modern birth control pills

Types of hormonal contraceptives

The first hormonal contraceptives have been made about fifty years ago, they contained high doses of hormones and provided a lot of side effects. Today malodozirovannye produced enough safe and effective hormonal contraceptives, of which almost always possible to choose the drug that is most appropriate for this woman.

Hormonal contraceptives are of various kinds. One component hormonal contraceptives contain one type hormones (usually estrogen analogues), while all the tablets containing the same dosage of hormones, i.e. drugs in this series are monophasic. Combined preparations contain two kinds of synthetic hormones (estrogen and progesterone analogues), it may be either monophasic (with one and the de-dose tablets in all) and the two three-phase, with different ratios of doses in tablets. In that case the tablets are colored and adopted in accordance with the phase of the menstrual cycle.

Hormonal contraception is suitable only for the orderly and disciplined women as wrong irregular intake can negate all the efforts for the prevention of unwanted pregnancies.

Receiving one component of hormonal contraceptives is allowed to hold only 3 hours, combined - for 12 hours.

Hormonal contraceptives appoint a gynecologist after a preliminary examination of the woman, whose goal is to identify contraindications to hormonal contraception.

 Hormonal contraception: Modern birth control pills

Indications and contraindications for hormonal contraceptives

Indications for use of hormonal contraceptives is to prevent unwanted pregnancies and the absence of contraindications to their reception.

Contraindications for hormonal contraceptives are increased sensitivity to a particular contraceptive, pregnancy, tumors (hormones stimulate the growth of cells), severe diseases of internal organs in violation of their function, blood clotting disorders, endocrine diseases (diabetes, obesity, etc.), uterine bleeding , of unknown etiology (cause), age over 35 years. If a woman has some hearing loss, before taking hormonal contraceptives should consult with an otolaryngologist: their reception is contraindicated in otosclerosis.

 Hormonal contraception: Modern birth control pills

Side effects that occur while taking hormonal contraceptives

Modern hormonal contraceptives provide a minimum of side effects, but bona fide pharmaceutical companies are always their point.

When you receive a number of different drugs can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms  Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
 , Headache, depressed mood (depression), pain and breast tenderness, weight gain, swelling, change in sexual desire, impaired vision and hearing loss, allergic reactions, inflammation of the walls of the veins (thrombophlebitis), increased blood pressure.

The modern woman can always by a gynecologist to pick up a hormonal contraceptive, which is more suited to her body.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • methods of contraception

Vacuum aspiration - widely used method

March 1, 2012

 vacuum aspiration
 The kinds of surgical medical activities often want to remove from a cavity content or take a piece of tissue for research. For such purposes, today issued the special equipment - vacuum aspirators, which found the widest application.

 Vacuum aspiration - widely used method

What is the suction drainage

Suction drainage - an active long suction of liquid and gas from the body cavity, wounds, especially postoperative using special equipment. Today, for this purpose, often use a vacuum aspirator. For removing liquid flexible tube connected to the apparatus for vacuum suction is introduced into the lowermost section or cavity wounds to remove gas - in its uppermost section.

Widely used suction drainage of serous cavities (abdominal, thoracic), hollow organs and cavities formed as a result of injury, disease process (hematoma, cyst, abscess, streaks, and so on) or surgery (wounds). The most common suction drainage is used in the early postoperative period after operations on the lungs and mediastinal organs to prevent wears off (collapse) of the lung and mediastinal shift inflammatory liquid and air, as well as for the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax (accumulation of air in the pleural cavity - the cavity between the membrane covering lungs) or empyema (suppuration) of the pleura.

It is used for aspiration and drainage of the operations in the stomach, duodenum, while burrowing pus in the abdomen, and so on. Vacuum aspiration provides a quick healing of surgical wounds, for example, after removal of the breast.

In urology vacuum aspiration is used for extraction of active purulent pyelocaliceal of the kidneys, bladder Urinary bladder - structure and function  Urinary bladder - structure and function
 , Retroperitoneal space, pelvis in order to create favorable conditions for the healing of wounds.

 Vacuum aspiration - widely used method

Vacuum aspiration in gynecology

In gynecology vacuum aspiration is used for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes as well as for the production of mini-vacuum abortion.

Medical vacuum aspiration is used to remove the uterus inflammatory fluid, pus and blood mainly by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterus (endometritis).

Diagnostic vacuum aspiration is used quite often. With this minor operation is taken from the uterus and lots liquid mucosa for laboratory research. Inflammatory fluid were tested in the microbiology laboratory, highlighting the infectious agents and setting their sensitivity to various antibiotics. The histology laboratory studied pieces of tissue taken from the uterus, how to identify cancers at an early stage. Sometimes the histological study is carried out to monitor the treatment of female hormones Hormonal treatments - not only contraceptives  Hormonal treatments - not only contraceptives

Diagnostic and medical vacuum aspiration greatly pressed such a small operation previously circulated as a diagnostic and therapeutic curettage Scraping - heavy and unsafe procedure  Scraping - heavy and unsafe procedure
   the uterine cavity. Vacuum aspirate - is much less traumatic method that gives much fewer complications, including inflammation, bleeding, and perforation of the uterine wall.

 Vacuum aspiration - widely used method

Vacuum aspiration abortion as a method of

Vacuum aspiration is most commonly used in gynecology for the production of mini-abortions - abortions in early pregnancy. Mini makes abortion for pregnancies up to five weeks. This gentle method of abortion, which is based on the fact that the fertilized egg (embryo) for five weeks has not yet deeply embedded in the uterine wall and the creation in the uterine cavity of negative pressure, it can be easily separated and removed from the uterus.

The advantage of the vacuum abortion Vacuum abortion - malotravmatichen, but still dangerous  Vacuum abortion - malotravmatichen, but still dangerous
   It is that in contrast to the tool of abortion, is not required to expand the cervical canal. It just introduced a flexible tube connected to a vacuum aspirator through which the fertilized egg and removed.

Vacuum aspiration is performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia and very rarely gives complications. However, as any abortion, mini-abortions undoubtedly harms the woman's body, as it promotes a drastic change in hormonal levels.

Vacuum aspiration - a therapeutic and diagnostic method, which is widely used in many fields of medicine. Today, reliable vacuum aspirators are available with adjustable power that can be used for any purpose.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • vacuum aspiration