- The rate of sugar in the blood - where the line between normal and abnormal?
- Carbohydrate metabolism
Reliably determine the status of carbohydrate metabolism possible by laboratory methods, one of which is the level of blood glucose. The rate of blood sugar should be assessed taking into account, what method of research was used, which was taken a blood sample. Be sure to take into account the age of the person, the meal before the study, and the impact of diet and certain medications.
Blood sugar is usually measured to establish the presence of diabetes in a patient or eliminate the disease, following the progress of the treatment of diabetes, pregnant woman check for gestational diabetes, to identify hypoglycemia.
It is normal for the following indicators:
- The level of fasting blood sugar: 70-99 mg / dL (3.9-5.5 mmol / l)
- The level of blood sugar 2 hours after meals: 70-145 mg / dL (3.9-8.1 mmol / l)
- Anytime: 70-125 mg / dL (3.9-6.9 mmol / l)
If you think you have diabetes, the first thing to do - check the level of sugar in the blood for several days in a row using the meter
The unit of measurement of sugar in the blood - blood glucose meter
. Test must be performed at different times of the day to determine exactly how your lifestyle affects on performance
Using assays measure the level of glucose in the blood - sugar that comes into contact mainly with the carbohydrate food. In a normal blood sugar level slightly increases after each meal. As indicated above, the rate of blood sugar may be different.
The blood sugar level shows fasting blood sugar level
Blood sugar - one of the main indicators of human health
after a patient has not eaten for at least eight hours. As a rule, this is the first analysis that makes for suspected diabetes and prediabetes. The patient is asked not to eat or drink for eight hours before blood sampling for analysis. Those who have been diagnosed with diabetes, it is generally recommended to donate blood to the morning dose of insulin or other antidiabetic drug.
Blood sugar levels two hours after a meal is measured, as the name implies, two hours after a meal. The rate for such analysis may be higher than for the previous test.
Random analysis on blood sugar do no matter where the patient ate last. Sometimes blood for this analysis takes several times during the day. A healthy human blood sugar per day varies insignificantly. The big difference in the results of the analysis can be a sign of problems.
What does it mean?
The deviation of test results from the norm may indicate diabetes, but it may be a sign of other violations.
To diagnose diabetes, the patient must meet the following criteria:
- The blood sugar level on an empty stomach 126 mg / dl (7.0 mmol / l) and above - such a result is to be obtained, at least twice
- Blood sugar levels 2 hours after a meal 200 mg / dl (11.1 mmol / l) and above
- The results of the analysis on random blood sugar
Blood sugar - a very important indicator
200 mg / dl (11.1 mmol / l) and above.
To maintain normal blood sugar levels, give preference to breakfast, rich in protein. If you are in a hurry to work, you can just drink a protein shake. Breakfast is suitable: eggs, fish, black bread with nut paste
In addition, the patient may experience symptoms of diabetes such as excessive thirst and frequent urination (especially at night), wanton increase in appetite, weight loss, weakness, erectile problems, blurred vision, tingling and / or numbness in the extremities.
If the blood sugar level slightly higher than normal - from 100 mg / dl (5.6 mmol / l) to 125 mg / dl (6.9 mmol / l), the patient is diagnosed prediabetes.
Indicators of blood sugar above normal can have other causes, such as severe stress, heart attack, stroke, Cushing's syndrome, taking certain medications, such as corticosteroids, or excessive production of growth hormone (acromegaly).
Blood sugar levels below 40 mg / dl (2.2 mmol / l) in women and less than 50 mg / dl (2.8 mmol / L) in men, the presence of symptoms of hypoglycemia may be a sign of insulinoma - tumor which in abnormally large amounts produces insulin .
Estimation of glycemia
A reflection of the functional state of the pancreas (its insular unit) is considered to be the level of glycemic control. The rate of sugar in the blood depends primarily on the research method, by which to carry out diagnostics. For practical use it is recommended several methods:
- method of determining the true blood sugar levels without reducing substances contained (uric acid, creatinine
Creatinine - will talk about the work of the kidneys
, Ergonin and others). Acceptable rates of blood sugar in this study ranged from 3 to 33 5, 55 mmol / l. This method is also known as the glucose oxidase or ortotoluidinovogo
- Method, according to which, together with the determined glucose reducing agents. There is increase in the level of sugar, so this feature should be considered when interpreting the data, particularly in patients with diabetes. If a patient with diabetes develop complications as kidney failure (diabetic nephropathy), then by reducing substances glycemic indices may increase compared with the actual figures of glucose for 2, 78 mmol / L or more. The rate of blood sugar in the determination of the second method ranged from 4, 44 to 6, 5 mmol / l
The rate of blood sugar after a meal can be quite different in different people. Even the healthiest foods can cause a dramatic increase in performance. This is particularly true of fructose. Therefore, consult your dietitian before using any products in your diet
Regardless of the method of investigation of the glucose in the blood is observed a slight increase in samples obtained from capillary blood compared with venous blood. On average, a difference of 0, 56 mg / dL. To a large extent influenced by the nature of human nutrition at the performance level of the basal glucose, so the rate must be assessed fasting blood sugar. The food that is rich in carbohydrates, fats, improves blood glucose values. Attention should be paid at the time of eating food at night, which will also lead to increased sugar values.
If we evaluate the diagnostic significance of the indicators, the most valuable is fasting glucose. In practice widely used "stress" tests based on the determination of glucose after glucose load or create a test meal. Assessment of indicators helps to investigate the state of glucose tolerance in a clinic or specialized endocrinology department. The standard test is a test with glucose (75 g oral glucose load). If there is a need to conduct massive research, you can use a shortened version of the test. Before the start of the study should identify indicators of glucose. Next give the patient as a drink dissolved in 75 g of glucose (dissolved in water). Re-investigation of glucose do in two hours.
If you eat right, but experiencing great emotional stress your performance will continue to go off-scale. In addition, stress promotes rapid weight gain in most people. This is because stress releases cortisol, which directly affects the blood level sarahra
If a person has no violations of the carbohydrate metabolism, the stress test after no change glucose values, they will not exceed the normal range. Another situation is observed in the presence of latent or overt diabetes mellitus. When disturbed carbohydrate metabolism blood glucose is above 7 mmol / l, and after the creation of the load may exceed 11 mmol / L. Conducting this test is shown in a situation where you need to confirm or exclude the presence of hyperglycemia is a major sign of diabetes. A prerequisite for glucose load should be appropriate diet for a few days on the eve of the study. Diet assumes the use of carbohydrates in an amount up to 200 grams per day. If a man will restrict the use of carbohydrates, it will lead to the normalization of sugar curve, so it can complicate diagnosis.
The same principle underlies the study of carbohydrate metabolism after the test meal. You must eat breakfast which should contain carbohydrates, including digestible (their ratio is 30 grams of total carbohydrates). Carbohydrate contained in a jam, jam, sugar, so one of these products should be included in the breakfast before the test. The results of this test, we can conclude the presence of impaired glucose tolerance, when blood glucose will be more than 8, 0 mmol / L (in the case of a pure method of determining glucose).
Other reasons for a low blood sugar level can be:
- Addison's disease
- Reduced levels of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism)
- Pituitary tumor
- Liver diseases such as cirrhosis
- Renal failure
- Depletion and / Does eating disorders (anorexia or bulimia)
- Medications for the treatment of diabetes
On the evidence of analyzes that measure blood sugar levels, can influence: alcohol, smoking, caffeine, stress, birth control pills, medications used to treat high blood pressure, phenytoin (Dilantin), furosemide (Lasix), triamterene (Dyrenium, Dyazide), hydrochlorothiazide (Esidrix, Oretic), niacin, propranolol (Inderal) or corticosteroids (prednisolone).