Systemic vasculitis - a disease that occur at times severe and prolonged, posing a significant threat to health and life of the patient. The group of systemic vasculitis includes a variety of sometimes totally unlike each other diseases. They are united by one thing - the defeat of the walls of blood vessels.
What is a systemic vasculitis, their types and causes
Systemic vasculitis - a group of diseases which are based on a generalized loss of vessels (arteries and veins of various calibres), followed by involvement in the pathological process of various organs and tissues. Vasculitis develop against many diseases as vascular walls, and especially their inner membrane (endothelium), damaged by a variety of influences.
By origin vasculitis are divided into primary (systemic vascular damage in this case is a separate disease) and secondary arising at the background of some other diseases (infectious, exchange, tumor and so on).
Causes of secondary vasculitis is closely related to the underlying disease - infection (scarlet fever, meningitis), systemic connective tissue diseases (rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis
Arthritis - a variety of forms and complications
, Systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma), toxic and allergic effects on the body of various substances (for example, drug or food allergies), diabetes mellitus
Diabetes - threatening and incurable disease
and so on.
Causes of primary vasculitis are still not fully understood. It is believed that in their development "guilty" heredity (often systemic vasculitis develop their relatives), as well as features of the immune system, as most of these diseases are autoimmune in nature. That is, the changes in blood vessel walls occur due to the fact that the immune system ceases to take these for their tissue and produces antibodies that destroy them.
Starting torque, contributing to the development of such changes in the immune system may be an infection (especially strep, such as angina
Angina - is it worth it to carry "on their feet"?
and chronic tonsillitis), drugs (e.g., antibiotics, synthetic analogues of vitamins, hormones, enzymes, and so forth), the physical impact (burns, frostbite, trauma, ionizing radiation), endocrine-metabolic disorders, and others.
All systemic vasculitis can be divided into the following types: vasculitis affecting the large, medium and small blood vessels.
Systemic vasculitis affecting the large blood vessels
To this group belong vasculitis temporal arteritis and Takayasu's arteritis. Temporal giant cell granulomatous vasculitis
Vasculitis - when blood vessels refuse to work
or Horton's disease - the disease mostly extra- and intracranial arteries occurs in people after 50 years. This affects all layers of the artery walls - temporal, vertebrate eye, and others.). The disease may be complicated by blindness, lesions of cranial nerves, lesions of the aorta and large arteries with aneurysm formation (area extension) of the aorta, bundle its walls and tear.
Takayasu's arteritis (nonspecific aortoarteriit, pulseless disease) - a chronic inflammatory disease of the large arteries, predominantly the aorta and its branches, rarely pulmonary artery branches. Suffer from this disease are mostly young women and girls. The disease can be complicated by aneurysm of the thoracic and abdominal aorta and coronary vessels of the heart to slow its progressive occlusion (decrease in lumen) that gives rise to attacks of angina and myocardial infarction.
Systemic vasculitis affecting medium-sized blood vessels
By vasculitis, affecting medium-sized blood vessels are knotted polyarteritis and Kawasaki syndrome. Knotty polyarteritis (periarteritis nodosa, panarteriit) affects renal artery (developing hypertension), heart, respiratory tract and digestive organs.
Kawasaki syndrome or mucous-kozhnozhelezisty syndrome often develops in children and manifested fever, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, ocular, oral mucosa, cracks on the tongue, swelling of the extremities.
Systemic vasculitis affecting small blood vessels
These include systemic vasculitis Wegener's granulomatosis - the defeat of the walls of the blood vessels of the upper airways, lungs and kidneys. Suffer the same disease that often men and women an average of about forty years. Particularly severe vascular processes develop in the walls of the bronchial tubes and tissue surrounding the bronchi. Often also affects the kidneys.
Diagnosis and treatment of systemic vasculitis is very difficult and sometimes get sick for a long time totally inadequate treatment, which contributes to the further development of the disease.