Child development from birth to three months
October 19, 2006
Does anyone what really capable of babies? Judging by appearances during the first days and weeks after birth, it is not much. It seems as if all the time the baby goes to the vital lesson - the absorption of milk, crying and screaming, sleeping and shitting who occasionally interspersed with brief period of attention to what is happening around.
However, recent research has shown that babies actually do much more. Already in the first minutes of life, infants show an amazing ability. The brain of the newborn superaktiven and ready to accept new information.
The mental and physical development of the child
A man leaves the womb, when ready to see the world. However, the development has just appeared in the light of a tiny man just beginning. Compare newborn human baby with a puppy:
puppy is eight weeks old, in full run, play, eat and drink on their own; the baby of the same age can barely distinguish objects with difficulty mastering control of complicated mechanism of his own body. What's the matter? The nervous system and brain of the baby is only partially developed, and in fact the brain - the central control center of the body. At birth, a baby's brain weight is only a quarter of the mass of the adult brain. It can regulate only the most important vital functions such as breathing, crying, sleeping
Dreams: how to understand our dreams
and absorption of food. However, the cerebral cortex - part of the brain responsible for complex thought processes and emotions
Emotions and culture: how to decipher the emotional code
- It grows and develops, so the child does what he wants, not just react to external stimuli.
So, how helpless screaming bundle turns into a fun and capable kid? At birth, the body of the child has 100 billion neurons (brain cells)
. But the neurons themselves still do not stimulate brain growth and the development of mental abilities of the child
. In order to perform a simple action, such as to track a moving object look or smile, the brain cells have each other to interact via dendrites, which form a kind of bridge between neurons
. Such compounds of brain cells called synapses
. At birth, the number of synapses in a child is very small, which also speaks of its underdevelopment: the brain transmits information of the newborn is 16 times slower than the adult brain
. To speed up the transmission of information also takes time; the brain of a newborn baby just starting to produce myelin - a fatty substance thick, accelerating the connection of neutrons
. In the first three months of life, the number of synapses in the brain of the baby increases more than 20 times
Your role in the development of baby's brain
However, the completion of the formation of a child's brain is not automatic. Recent studies suggest that brain development depends on the activity of the child. Each new activity or experience - from examining baby monitor hanging from the cradle to the understanding that cries lead to feeding and maternal affection - excites certain nerve chain and leave the rest idle. What does this mean for parents? It is not necessary to overload the kid different occupations. Talk with your baby, swing it to the hands - that is, do all the things that parents do with newborns - it contributes to the intellectual development of the baby.
The main reason unformed state of the brain at birth is that people - a social being, the development of which is largely determined by society. Individuality for a puppy or a giraffe is not as important as a person. Our individual differences would have been endangered if we were born with a perfect and formed brain. But do not rush to conclusions. Abilities babies do not cease to surprise us. They instantly take over from others both good and bad, learn quickly, and more memorable.
First aid kit for a newborn - the means for all occasions
October 5, 2014
Even if you live in a modern big city, where there is a sufficient number of all-night drugstore with a huge range, some medicines for the newborn, as well as a means to provide first aid should always be at hand. It is better when the kit is prepared for the newborn during pregnancy - after the appearance of the child, you may be hard to find time to go to a drugstore in search of essential drugs.
Composition of kits for the newborn may vary depending on such factors as place of residence (for example, if you live in warmer climates, where the common dangerous insects in the medicine cabinet should be a remedy for bites, as well as an ointment for sunburn), health status baby, and so on. However, in almost any child's first aid kit should include tools listed below.
List - a first aid kit for a newborn
- Ointment for diaper rash. The appearance of diaper rash is almost inevitable for any newborn, so the first-aid kit should always be a means to deal with them. It is best suited for this purpose ointment containing zinc oxide - a substance copes with irritation.
- Ointment Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone - a drug that could save the life of the patient
. This ointment, which is available in almost any drug, usually a concentration of active substance of 0.5% or 1%. Both species are quite gentle ointment for babies. Hydrocortisone is used mainly as eczema
Eczema - is difficult to treat
, Insect bites, as well as irritation and itching of the skin. Use ointment as directed on the package, and do not use it on a stretch of more than seven days, otherwise it could lead to a violation of skin pigmentation.
- Neomycin. Once the baby starts to crawl or walk on his skin from time to time will necessarily appear scratches or cuts. Neomycin ointment is applied to minor skin lesions to prevent infection.
- Vaseline is a great moisturizer for eczema and various disorders that cause dryness and peeling of skin in children. Besides, it can be applied to diaper rash to protect the affected skin from contact with urine and feces.
- Paracetamol. Liquid paracetamol, designed specifically for babies and infants, is considered safe for babies, even though children under the age of two months, it is still not recommended to give without the proper guidance of the doctor.
- Ibuprofen, like paracetamol, produced in the form of liquids, the concentration of active ingredients that is perfect for small children. It is desirable that children first aid kit for babies included the drug, though children under the age of four months, it may be given only with the permission of the doctor. Ibuprofen - a few more potent medication than paracetamol, and its effect lasts longer. In most cases, doctors recommend giving newborn paracetamol, because it is more gentle preparation for the children's stomach; Nevertheless, severe pain, very high body temperature, you may need ibuprofen
Ibuprofen: anti-inflammatory drug
So it is best to make it right at your fingertips.
- Decongestants. Strictly speaking, OTC decongestants are not required in newborn medicine cabinet - with very few exceptions, they are not recommended for children under 4-6 months. However, you can buy just in case decongestant - preferably with long storage.
- Cough syrup is usually also not recommended for children under the age of six months, but one bottle of medicine of this type is still worth to keep in the medicine cabinet.
- Simethicone is recommended to take a newborn suffering from abdominal cramps. He does not always give the expected result, but at least, this drug does not cause side effects, and is considered quite safe for even the youngest children.
- Electrolyte solution is used to eliminate the effects of dehydration. It may require the newborn with a strong diarrhea and vomiting. It should be noted that the likelihood that you yourself have to give the newborn a solution is very small. Usually kids when a weak or moderate-severe diarrhea and vomiting is recommended to continue breastfeeding or formula milk
Dairy mixture - selection of useful power
And if they are very strong, the baby is hospitalized, and liquids with electrolytes give him in the hospital. You can keep in the medicine cabinet electrolyte solution, but you can give it to a child only if it was recommended by your doctor.
- Saline solution for rinsing the nose. This inexpensive tool is completely safe for newborns and very good for a variety of infections of the upper respiratory tract.
- Injection and / or a pipette. They will be useful in order to accurately measure the correct dose of liquid medicine for your child. In the treatment of newborns it is very important to strictly adhere to the recommended doses of drugs as an overdose can be especially dangerous for them.
- Cotton swabs handy to clean the ears of the child (by the way, a layman should be cleaned only the outer part of the ear of a newborn, do not enter the wand inside the ear). They are also used for the application of ointments some small areas of skin.
- Bandages and plasters must be in every home medicine cabinet.
- Thermometer. To measure the temperature in neonates and infants under the age of six months are best rectal thermometer (testimony of the most accurate), but you can also use a regular thermometer that measures the temperature in the armpits. The safest for young children are digital thermometers, which do not contain potentially dangerous mercury for humans.
First aid kit for babies: safety rules
- Keep a first aid kit in a closed cabinet, and to remove the drug immediately after use. Remember that a child can swallow any medicine that you accidentally leave with him, and the consequences can be very severe.
- Before giving the infant a drug, you should consult your doctor, even over the phone. Ask the doctor not only about whether a drug is safe for the baby, but exactly when it should be given - before or after feeding.
- Secure bandages and patches so that the child could not unwind by yourself or peel them.
If you suspect that exceeded the recommended dose of a drug, seek immediate medical attention.