Pregnancy - a very important period in the life of a woman, so it is best to prepare: to identify and treat all chronic diseases, which in some way may affect the health of women and child development during pregnancy. But there are also states that are difficult to prevent. Preeclampsia toxemia of pregnancy called late - a condition that occurs in the second half of pregnancy and is characterized by dysfunction of vital organs and systems.
Preeclampsia, which develops in the absence of any disease called pure preeclampsia. If you have preeclampsia on the background of a disease (eg, hypertension), he is considered to be married.
Preeclampsia is more common in pregnant women with kidney disease, cardiovascular system, endocrine diseases, chronic intoxications and infections. Preeclampsia affects women with chronic stress, fatigue, nulliparous younger than 17 and older than 35 years old, from socially disadvantaged groups, who have a genetic predisposition to gestosis (mother, sister suffered preeclampsia).
The causes and mechanisms of development of preeclampsia
The causes of preeclampsia are currently not fully understood. It is believed that the reason for it is the impact of various factors, which lead to disturbances in the body of a pregnant woman.
The basis of all disturbances in preeclampsia is a spasm of the blood vessels, reducing blood volume, changes in clotting and blood flow. This leads to a decrease in blood supply to the tissues, which can not function properly. Most sensitive to the lack of blood supply to the brain and kidneys. The placenta also undergoes changes that cause intrauterine growth retardation.
Preeclampsia is divided into dropsy pregnant, nephropathy pregnant women, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.
An early sign of preeclampsia - edema pregnant
Dropsy pregnancy is the result of fluid retention in the body and is characterized by persistent edema. There are hidden and obvious swelling. Hidden edema indicates too fast (more than 300 g per week) weight gain.
Obvious swelling usually begin to form in the ankles, and spread upward. When edema and overall well-being of pregnant women remains good.
Nephropathy pregnant - a deepening of preeclampsia
Nephropathy usually develops on the background of dropsy and is characterized by swelling, high blood pressure (up to 135/85 mm Hg) and the appearance of protein in the urine
The protein in the urine - a sign of danger, which should not be underestimated
. During the survey of pregnant women with nephropathy it is important the presence of vasospasm fundus - this suggests that cerebral blood flow is disrupted.
Pre-eclampsia - a condition that threatens the life of the woman and fetus
In the long nephropathy she can go to pre-eclampsia. A sign of this shift is a headache, heaviness in the head, flickering flies in front of the eyes, nausea, abdominal pain
Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
, Memory impairment, insomnia, irritability,
Irritability - you try to control my temper
, Lethargy against the backdrop of high blood pressure (160/110 mm Hg or higher). The cause of preeclampsia is a violation of the microcirculation in the brain. Pain in the stomach arise from the small hemorrhages in the stomach wall, and in the right upper quadrant - due to hyperextension of the liver capsule.
Eclampsia - the final stage of preeclampsia
Eclampsia occurs against the backdrop of pre-eclampsia is characterized by seizures and convulsions, which are often triggered by external factors: a bright light, sharp sound, pain, stress and so on. Convulsive seizures usually lasts 1-2 minutes and consists of four phases: initial, tonic (long) seizures, clonic (small) seizures and loss of consciousness phase.
Sometimes there is a form of non-convulsive eclampsia: a woman suddenly falls into a coma on a background of high blood pressure.
Complications of preeclampsia
Preeclampsia may be complicated by cardiac and renal failure
Kidney failure - when treatment is vital
, Bleeding in internal organs, including the brain, premature detachment of normally situated placenta. A typical complication of preeclampsia is also a placental insufficiency resulting in growth retardation.
Treatment of preeclampsia
Treatment of preeclampsia, except for mild swelling, conducted at the hospital. Appointed by the soothing, diuretic, lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow agents. ALWAYS prevention and treatment of intrauterine fetal hypoxia and delay its development. For a woman creates health-protective mode, according to testimony carried out delivery.
Indications for early delivery nephropathy is moderate with no effect on the treatment for 7-10 days, severe preeclampsia, which can not be eliminated for 2-3 hours, growth retardation and lack of growth during the treatment gestosis, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and its complications.
Prevention of preeclampsia at risk should start with the beginning of the II trimester of pregnancy. This is organized by the rational mode of rest and food, are appointed soothing, regenerating liver, kidney and metabolic drugs.
But the basis of prevention of preeclampsia - a regular monitoring of obstetrician-gynecologist.