The accident at the Japanese nuclear power plant "Fukushima - 1" showed how fragile our world, because such stations exist in our country, and not the fact that they are in a better position, because natural disasters can occur in any area. What to do in case of an ordinary person such a catastrophe?
If there is a suspicion of radioactive contamination
Sometimes suspected radioactive contamination occurs even before the official announcement of this government. In this case, it is recommended as soon as possible to come into the room. Better if it will be a room with thick walls or located underground (subway, basement, tunnel). It is believed that the protection agent is the most effective: it is necessary to ensure that between a man and a source of radiation was as much substance and how it tighter, the better. For example, while in the one-story wooden house radiation dose is reduced by half in the basement of the house - seven times in a one-story stone house - ten times in his basement - forty times in the basement of the three-storey house - in four times.
So you need to choose the best possible safe shelter and wait for the message out there about the radiation environment of the Ministry of Emergency Situations. If you stay in the room, you need to carefully close all vents. At the same time we must try to protect against radiation airways - wear suitable protective cotton-gauze bandage, or just close your nose and mouth with several layers of any tissue dampened with water.
Before the meal you need to rinse your mouth with a five per cent solution of soda (a teaspoon per cup), the same solution can be washed with the nasal cavity, pulling it through the nose, and then spitting out (do not swallow).
The room need on a daily basis to carry out a thorough wet cleaning. If you will have to leave the house, it is better to throw on some garment, wear a hat and cover his face mask. After returning to the top clothes and shoes are better left outside the door.
When it announced that radiation contamination occurred terrain
Without dosimeter can be unaware of the presence of radiation. But MOE should monitor the situation and report on it in time to the population. To measure the dose of radiation adopted unit - X-ray. The extent of radioactive contamination is characterized by levels of radiation, which is measured in roentgens per hour (p / h). The area is considered to be contaminated when radiation levels 0, 5 roentgen per hour and higher.
Once the MOE announced the radiation contamination, it is necessary to listen carefully to all the local ads and implement all the recommendations MOE. The fact that the radioactive contamination is fairly rapid decline in the level of radiation. For example, seven hours after the high level of the radiation level is reduced to ten times a day - a forty-fold, forty-eight hours - a hundred times.
Therefore, in the first hours after infection need to be in shelters, and when radiation
Radiation and its biological effect: gently infected!
decrease (signal MES), you can go to his apartment. MOE sets the protection mode, depending on to what degree of contamination zone is the location. Contamination can be mild (8 - 80 p / h an hour after the accident), strong (80 - 240 p / h) and dangerous (to 1200 p / h). In accordance with these areas MOE develops rules of behavior of the population, including length of stay in the shelter. If necessary, the MOE decides to evacuate the population. On how well people adhere teams MOE, their lives depend.
On opening an infected area should not drink, eat, smoke, strip, touching any objects, walking through tall grass and thick brush. Before you enter the room, you need to remove outer clothing and shoes and leave it outside the door. You can not eat openly stored food and water.
Iodine prophylaxis is also carried out only team MOE. To do this within a week of taking potassium iodide tablets. Children under two years are over a quarter of a tablet. Instead of pills, you can take five percent tincture of iodine (three - five drops of tincture in a glass of water for adults and one - two drops of children). Doses greater than those in any case impossible.
Food and water
If your home has any strategic reserves of food and water, they should be stored in the basement. If they are stored at home, and then must be placed in cabinets or in a refrigerator. Products should be stored in tightly closed glass, metal or glass-lined tanks, which must be covered from the top with various materials. Water for drinking and cooking can be taken only from the water, and in winter - from the water, covered with a thick layer of ice. If there is no uncontaminated food and water, the disinfecting of contaminated products.
Products stored in sealed metal, enamel and glass containers can be used after disinfection capacity. She wiped and cleaned with water and detergent. Products which are in unsealed containers (butter, solid fats, cheeses) decontaminated by removing the surface layer of a minimum thickness of a knife, two - three millimeters. If the products are not stored in the tanks (e.g., sausage, vegetables, fruits), they are decontaminated by washing with water jet, and then remove the surface layer of up to one centimeter.
Contaminated milk should be carefully boil and better make it a cottage, and some time after the reduction of radioactivity to eat. Liquid products (e.g., vegetable oil) is decontaminated by settling for at least three days after the top layer is decanted and the rest is used for food. You can also stand up and the water, but the reliability of its filtered through a layer of sand and activated carbon
Activated carbon - old but indispensable
The most important thing when radioactive contamination - this is not to panic and to carefully follow all instructions MOE.