The epithelium in smear - as evidenced by the deviation from the norm

August 26, 2014

 epithelium in smear
 Squamous epithelium called cells, which normally form the inner, mucosal layer of the vagina, cervix, and other internal organs, such as the urethra in men. The mucous membranes are also found columnar epithelial cells, which, inter alia, responsible for the secretion and prevent tissue damage. What does the epithelium in a smear?


Performance standards and their violation

The number of epithelial cells isolated from women Selections women: how to distinguish from normal departures  Selections women: how to distinguish from normal departures
   is influenced by factors such as menstruation, menopause, hormonal drugs, and so forth. However, the rate of epithelial smear no more than 3-15 cells in sight. Epithelium smear males normally have to be from 5 to 10 cells in the zone of visibility.

If the cells in a smear of columnar epithelium, the squamous epithelium and the like, below the norm, it can be a sign of hormonal failure that might occur, for example, early menopause. A large number of atypical cells columnar epithelium could be an indication of cancer, such as cervical cancer. Increased epithelium in smear may indicate diseases such as cervicitis, urethritis, some infections.

Please note that the results of the analysis of a smear affect factors such as hygiene, use of certain drugs, and so on.

To test gave the most reliable results, two days before the meeting can not take a bath, do douching, use of spermicidal creams and other intravaginal contraceptive, vaginal suppositories bet Vaginal suppositories - for contraception and treatment of inflammation  Vaginal suppositories - for contraception and treatment of inflammation

Sometimes doctors also recommend to refrain at this time from sex. If you do not adhere to these recommendations, flat and cylindrical epithelium in smear may be significantly lower than the norm, and the test will not reflect the real picture of the state of health of the patient.


Further diagnosis and treatment

A doctor can diagnose a patient vaginitis, if she found an increased squamous epithelium in the smear, and if her present symptoms of the disease such as pain and itching in the vagina, profuse discharge with an unpleasant odor and redness of the vulva. Vaginitis - an inflammation of the vagina, the causes of which may be as infections (caused, for example, bacteria, fungi or parasites) or irritation due to exposure to certain chemicals, or reduction in levels of female hormones after menopause. Infectious vaginitis is treated with antibiotics, antifungal drugs and other medicines.

Urethra, or inflammation of the urethra - is quite common disorder among men and women, which may indicate a large number of epithelial smear. Its pathogens may be bacteria or viruses, e.g., chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes simplex virus Herpes simplex - in fact, not so simple  Herpes simplex - in fact, not so simple
   and cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus - what is its danger?  Cytomegalovirus - what is its danger?
 . The causes of urethritis can also be injured, and increased sensitivity to such contraceptives as spermicides. The risk is especially great urethritis in women of reproductive age in men aged 20 to 35 years, people who have many sexual partners and / or have sex without a condom.

Signs of urethritis in men are usually the presence of blood in the urine or semen, burning and pain when urinating, discharge from the penis, burning, discomfort or swelling of the penis or groin area, pain during intercourse / or ejaculation. Symptoms in women - a pain in the lower abdomen, a burning sensation when urinating, fever and chills, frequent urination, abnormal vaginal discharge. Infectious urethritis treated with antibiotics; if necessary, patients may also receive analgesics. For the treatment of non-infectious urethritis it is often sufficient to avoid exposure to substances that cause irritation. If treatment is successful, the parameters epithelial smear quickly bounce back.

Atypical squamous cells in the smear can be a sign of dysplasia or cervical cancer. Dysplasia is a condition in which the cervix contains abnormal cells - it is not cancer, and in most cases, the violation takes place within a few years. According to statistics, only one percent of women who had first discovered, the weak, the stage of dysplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN 1), it progresses to the second or third most severe, stage. However, CIN 3 - it is not a sentence: no more than one-third of patients with diagnoses develop cervical cancer. However, when CIN 2 and 3 require treatment. The most commonly used techniques such as laser therapy, cryotherapy, and diathermy - in the course of these procedures abnormal cells are destroyed, to be replaced by healthy cells can grow.

Hysterectomy - removal of the cervix and uterus - may be recommended if the probability of developing cancer is very high, if a woman has menopause, or if it no longer plans to have children.

Follicular cysts - a consequence of hormonal disorders

December 20, 2011

 follicular cyst
 Follicular cysts are formed by various hormonal disorders in women that may arise, including inflammatory diseases or congenital hormone deficiency. These cysts can occur in infants and girls and women of childbearing age and during menopause.


As it is formed

Follicular cysts are formed in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. In the first half of the menstrual cycle in the ovary under the influence of hormones going on oocyte maturation. Basically oocyte maturation stimulate female sex hormones estrogen (they are produced in the ovaries) and follicle-stimulating hormone pituitary gland. The egg in the ovary is in a special vial, which is called the follicle. Once the egg is fully mature, the follicle ruptures and the egg is released from the ovary into the abdominal cavity, where enters the fallopian tube. The moment of release of the egg from the ovary is called ovulation Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?  Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?

But in some cases because of a lack of hormones is not fully mature egg and follicle bursts. This cycle is called anovulatory and it may not result in pregnancy. This still is not the bursting of the follicle in the ovary tissue formed follicular cyst. This cyst ironed like a circular formation with thin smooth walls with a diameter of up to six or seven centimeters. Inside the walls there is a cyst, it is filled with homogeneous fluid.

Follicular cysts are formed by the hormone deficiency, inflammatory processes in the female genital organs, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and so on. Follicular cysts can occur in women of all ages, including girls during puberty. They arise and newborns, as well as in utero. Several follicular cysts may appear on the background of ovarian stimulation in the treatment of infertility Infertility Treatment - What principles are priority  Infertility Treatment - What principles are priority



Signs of follicular cysts depend on what was the cause of its occurrence. Follicular cysts may be hormonally active and inactive. Hormonally active follicular cysts secrete the female sex hormone estrogen, which is under the influence of an increase in the volume of the mucous membrane of the uterus, frequent bleeding from the uterus. In addition, if hormonally active follicular cyst occurs in girls, then she begins puberty too fast Puberty child - stages of a complex path  Puberty child - stages of a complex path
 . If the cyst is very large and compresses the surrounding tissues, the woman can appear abdominal pain.

Hormonally inactive follicular cysts usually does not manifest itself, asymptomatic and can be detected incidentally during ultrasound. These cysts may occur and go unnoticed by the woman.

Follicular cyst of ovary Ovarian cysts - normal or dangerous?  Ovarian cysts - normal or dangerous?
   It may be complicated by torsion legs that often ends its rupture, suppuration and distribution of inflammatory processes in the abdominal cavity (peritonitis). Break wall cysts can occur when sudden movement or lifting weights. In this case there is a sudden sharp pain in the lower abdomen on the affected side. Pain can give to the external genitalia, upper legs, spreads throughout the abdomen. Often at the same time with the pain nausea and vomiting. If you do not start peritonitis, the pain pass quickly and the status of women is restored. In peritonitis, high fever and symptoms of acute abdomen - an indication that the woman requires urgent surgical care.


Diagnosis and treatment of follicular cysts

Follicular cysts (if large enough) can be detected during the inspection of the gynecologist - she palpated as a dense painless education. Most follicular cyst is found incidentally during ultrasound.

After identifying the follicular cysts her first observe and carry out conservative treatment. For resorption follicular cysts appointed hormones, anti-inflammatory and physiotherapy (such as electrophoresis with absorbable drugs).

But for a long time to observe and treat the large follicular cyst is dangerous, so if within three months, it is not reduced in size, it is removed. Some cysts operate immediately, without medical treatment. This cyst diameter of more than eight centimeters, as well as movable, prone to torsion of the cyst. Remove the cysts and suspected their degeneration into a malignant tumor. Today, such operations are conducted with the help of endoscopic procedures through small incisions.

In order to timely detect and treat follicular cysts, every woman should be like a regular preventive examination by a gynecologist.

Galina Romanenko

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