The fact that smoking - harmful, they know everything already in middle age many are trying to get rid of this habit. But, as it turns out, it is not so simple: smoking is not just a highly desirable, it becomes literally vital, like a breath of air. Why is there such a craving for cigarettes, and what about those who want to quit smoking?
How is the nicotine addiction
Any dependencies are formed on the same principle. All substances capable of causing addiction, has psychoactive properties. For example, the person calms down after cigarette, feels a surge of energy and good mood. Initially, people just want to repeat this pleasant effect, but eventually he realizes that without a cigarette to him as if something is missing, there is a strong craving to smoke - a psychological dependence. And then quietly turns out that if you want to quit smoking, the body that actively resists: have discomfort, nausea, weakness, irritability
Irritability - you try to control my temper
, Insomnia, tremor of hands and so on. This condition is called abstinence or withdrawal syndrome. Man has become so bad that all his good intentions immediately disappear - one cigarette - and again perfectly. This is the second stage of addiction - physical, it lies in the fact that nicotine has become a component of metabolic processes, and without it the body is really getting bad. It is a vicious circle: the nicotine has a sharply negative, toxic effects on the body, but it is vitally important to him. Breaking this vicious circle is not so simple. One of the most effective ways of treating smoking are nicotine patches.
The mechanism of action of nicotine patches
Nicotine patches contain nicotine, which enters the body through the skin and relieves the state of abstinence. Gradually reduced and psychological craving for cigarettes (the desire to smoke). It is on this principle mechanism of action of nicotine substitutes, which are issued in the form of patches, gum and so on. But in order to really help a patch to quit smoking, a person must first of all he want it and work actively in this direction.
In Russian pharmacies are sold patch "Nicorette" pharmaceutical company Pfizer Heath AB (Sweden), designed for 16-hour action. Available adhesives with a dosage of 15, 10 and 5 mg. When using the nicotine patch person can afford slowly, without any discomfort, reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. And as the night people usually do not smoke, the duration of the patch "Nicorette" 16 hours, it is intended that the remaining 8 hours of sleep a person needs. With the patch, you can simply reduce the number of cigarettes smoked, without giving up smoking completely. It will also benefit.
The bulk goes nicotine from the patch to the skin, is absorbed from the blood. The remaining small portion (about 5%) is gradually evaporates. The maximum concentration of nicotine in the blood appears in 6-10 hours. Nicotine is output through the liver (with the feces), the kidneys (urine) and light (moisture exhaled air). Nicotine is almost bound to plasma proteins, therefore, does not interact with other drugs and has no effect on the course of various diseases.
If abnormal liver function and kidney concentration of nicotine in the blood plasma increases. A slight decrease in nicotine in the urine excretion also observed in the elderly.
When using a patch over 16 hours the concentration of nicotine over the next 8 hours decreases.
Indications and contraindications
The indication for the use of the nicotine patch are:
- treatment of tobacco dependence in patients who want to quit smoking by reducing the need for nicotine; Removing withdrawal occurs when quitting smoking;
- reducing the number of cigarettes smoked per day.
Contraindications to the use of the nicotine patch - Hypersensitivity to nicotine or other components of the patch and breast-feeding
Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!
With caution and only after consulting with your doctor nicotine patch is used for severe diseases of internal organs, especially in diseases of the cardiovascular system, disorders of the liver and kidneys, with acute gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer.
In pregnancy, the patch can be used only with the permission of the doctor. Thus it is necessary to know that there is a risk of negative effects of nicotine on the fetus, but it is significantly less than the harm caused by smoking mother to the fetus.
Side effects of nicotine patch
Nicotine patches can cause the following side effects:
- the central nervous system - dizziness
Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
- on the part of the cardiovascular system - heart rate, heart rhythm disorders;
- the part of the digestive system - nausea, vomiting;
- with the skin - redness, itching, hives.
With an overdose of all the side effects worse. It should immediately remove the patch.
How to apply
Treatment starts with 15 mg patch that is applied to intact skin in the morning and removed at night before bedtime
Dreams: how to understand our dreams
. The treatment is different, but is usually at least three months, then switch to the patches 10 mg (2-3 weeks), followed by 5 mg (as 2-3 weeks). More than six months to apply the patches is not recommended.
Nicotine patches - good help to those who really decided to quit.