- White blood cells in urine - complications are inevitable
The normal white blood cell count in urine - how to interpret the results
The normal number of white blood cells in the urine depends on the age and sex
. Furthermore, the number of leukocytes may vary depending on a number of factors (for example, under the influence of certain physiological processes in the body, when taking certain medications), which in itself does not indicate the presence of infection
. Normal leukocytes in urine is generally from zero to six cells in the field of view for women (in the investigation of urine samples under a microscope), and from zero to three cells in the field of view - Men
. This figure depends on the type of executable analizma urine: for example, the analysis of urine on Nechiporenko norm is up to four thousand white blood cells per milliliter of fluid
. The excess of the normal number of white blood cells in the urine is called leukocyturia
. If the number of white blood cells in urine is significantly higher than normal, a condition called pyuria - in this case the presence of leukocytes in urine is already possible to determine without a microscope, because a large number of white blood cells alters the texture and color of the liquid
In normal urine to ten leukocytes contained in 1 l (up to three men, women up to six leukocytes in the field of view in the study urine under a microscope), which do not affect its color and clarity.
Determine the number of white blood cells in the urine after centrifugation, resulting in separated urine sediment. The precipitate look under a microscope and determining the presence of leukocytes therein. Under the microscope, white blood cells are represented by small round cells with sharply defined and refract light nucleus. Often they are glued together to form a group or a handful. In recent years, such studies do not often manually, using special equipment.
White blood cells in the urine as a sign of the disease
The presence of white blood cells in the urine, indicating any inflammatory disease, determined by standard urine tests, running in the diagnosis of various diseases and, above all, in the diagnosis of diseases of the genitourinary system
. For determination of leukocytes in urine could be analyzed urine leukocyte esterase - an enzyme produced by leucocytes and urine was determined in the presence of white blood cells
. Furthermore, the presence and the exact number of leukocytes in the urine can be determined by examining the urine samples under a microscope
. In a very small number of white blood cells in the urine may be present all the time, so even some exceeding standards for levels of white blood cells in the urine itself in some cases still is not a basis to confirm the diagnosis
. Generally, for the diagnosis of various types of urinary tract infections, bladder or kidney, in addition to the analysis of leukocytes in urine, an additional analysis of urine nitrite, which also indicate the presence of infection
In various diseases the number of white blood cells in the urine sediment can increase considerably. With a large number of white blood cells urine becomes cloudy and the bottom of the vessel falls abundant loose or mucous sediment.
The increase in the number of leukocytes (leukocyturia) indicates inflammation in the kidneys, urinary tract and genitals. Thus, when pelvic inflammatory disease is detected in the urine of a huge number of white blood cells, therefore, to clarify the diagnosis by repeated measurements of urine, taken this time with a catheter directly from the bladder
Urinary bladder - structure and function
During acute inflammatory leukocytes renal origin generally have a single core, while leukocytes deriving from the urinary tract, have multiple cores. When the exchange (dystrophic) kidney disorders are often found in leukocytes fat inclusion.
Most white blood cells of renal origin is found in inflammatory diseases of the kidneys (pyelonephritis), much less their in infectious allergic diseases of the kidneys (glomerulonephritis), which dominates the other symptoms. The fact that the process has an allergic nature and occurrence of said large number of eosinophils (one type of leukocytes, which accompanies an allergic reaction).
Establishing the source leukocyturia
To identify the source of large numbers of white blood cells, the following samples:
- dvuhstakannaya test: the patient must urinate in two glass jars without interrupting the stream of urine; leykotsituriya detected if the first portion - this indicates the presence of inflammation in the lower part of the urinary tract (urethra, prostate), and the second - an inflammation of the urinary bladder, ureters and kidneys;
- trehstakannaya test: before collecting urine urologist massages the prostate; continuous stream of urine is divided into three parts, the predominance of leukocytes in the first portion indicates inflammation of the urethra or prostate, uniform distribution of leukocytes in all portions with high probability could indicate renal disease.
To reveal hidden leukocyturia sometimes make prednisolone trial: patient examined in the morning the first urine, then intravenous prednisolone
Prednisolone - against inflammation, allergy and pain, but with complications
Then examined three urine samples collected at hourly intervals; in the presence of a hidden leukocyturia number of white blood cells in the urine should be increased two or more times.
Quantitative methods of urine
Quantitative methods of determination of formed elements in urine can determine the exact number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and cylinders isolated from urine. It reveals hidden pyuria, which is frequently observed in chronic inflammatory diseases of the kidney, as well as to clarify the nature of the inflammatory process.
For example, in chronic pyelonephritis
Pyelonephritis - kidney disease
WBC count is usually predominates over the number of erythrocytes and chronic glomerulonephritis
Glomerulonephritis - a severe infection of the kidneys
and renal arteriosclerosis contrast, the number of erythrocytes more than leukocytes. Quantitative research methods include methods of urine Nechiporenko, Addis Kakovskogo and Amburzhe. Most often used the most wait Nechiporenko method: counting the cellular elements in 1 ml of medium morning urine.
How to collect urine
In order to avoid errors in the evaluation of urine test, it is necessary to properly collect. For a general analysis of urine is enough to collect the first morning urine in a clean bowl of clear glass with a flat bottom and close the lid. Before collecting urine should carefully wash the external genitals with soap and water. If the study for any reason can not be made shortly after the urine collection, it is best to store it in a cool place.