- Rotavirus: favorable prognosis
- incubation period
Rotavirus infection (RVI) occurs quite often today, especially among children. Thus, the World Health Organization estimates that during the first five years of life, nearly all children suffer the disease irrespective of the place of residence and social conditions.
Clinical diagnosis of rotavirus infection
Rotavirus infection is also called rotavirus gastroenteritis, stomach flu, intestinal flu. Called RVI rotavirus, a part that has RNA. The source of infection is a sick man who excrete the virus in feces and infection occurs through dirty hands, household items. Sometimes there RVI catarrhal phenomena - a cough and runny nose, and then the infection is possible by airborne droplets.
Many adults have antibodies in the blood to rotaviruses, which indicates that they are ill with this infection, and possibly more than once. Most RVI sick children, especially small ones. The incubation period for RVI lasts from one to five days, then immediately appear suddenly all the major symptoms of the disease. The main signs of the disease are vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain
Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
and violation of general condition. The pathogen is introduced into the wall of the intestine and interferes with the digestion of food, as well as increases peristalsis, which causes nausea, repeated vomiting and loose, watery stools. Losing large amounts of fluid in young children can cause serious complications in the circulatory system.
Current altimetry can be mild, moderate and severe, the duration - from two days to a week. After recovery, the patient is still in the faeces up to two weeks continue to be allocated rotaviruses.
The diagnosis is placed first on the basis of the characteristic symptoms of the disease and the epidemiological situation (mass disease).
What matters is a seasonal disease (it occurs more frequently in winter) and the lack of positive results in the group of intestinal pathogens of bacterial and protozoan (protozoa, such as amoebic dysentery) origin.
Laboratory diagnosis of rotavirus infection
When mass outbreaks of disease carried out a full examination of patients. This involves the virological, immunological and molecular genetic (detection in the material genetic material rotavirus) laboratory tests. The material for the study are the stool and vomit and blood of patients.
Conducted laboratory tests aimed at detecting the virus or its genetic material. To this end, use a variety of laboratory procedures. For example, rotavirus can be detected by rapid immunochromatographic fecal patient manner (company-test), it does not require a high concentration of the virus in feces, and the sensitivity of the method is close to one hundred percent. In addition, this test does not take more than 15 minutes, which is also very important for timely diagnosis.
To detect the genetic material of rotavirus in the stool is often used by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In virology laboratories rotavirus can be detected by electron microscopy or by special gel electrophoresis.
Methods for detection of specific antibodies
Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity
in the serum of patients with RVI to establish the correct diagnosis, do not have much sense, since the antibodies in this disease appear relatively late.
Confirmation of the diagnosis can be normal laboratory testing of stool. The feces show signs of impaired digestion and absorption of food in the form of its large amount of undigested tissue, fat, starch, muscle fibers. While signs of inflammation (mucus, leukocytes
White blood cells as the basis of immunity
and red blood cells) are present in the stool, not all patients, which also speaks of viral diseases. Fecal have with the distinctive look: they are abundant, watery, frothy, heterogeneous (due to the large amount of undigested lumps, especially fat), a sour smell.
General blood analysis
Blood tests: a mirror of health
It can also serve as confirmation of the viral nature of the disease, as even in severe disease there is no overt signs of inflammation. Changes in the overall analysis of urine usually appear only in patients with severe rotavirus infection, which indicates the general intoxication, including renal toxicity.