Thyroid hormones during pregnancy and fetal development - Deficit

February 5, 2013

  • Thyroid hormones during pregnancy and fetal development
  • Deficiency

 deficiency of thyroid hormones in the fetus and newborn

Deficiency of thyroid hormones in the fetus and newborn

In the fetus, there are two potential sources of thyroid hormone - its own thyroid gland, thyroid gland and his mother. The human fetus begins to synthesize thyroid hormones about the twelfth week of pregnancy; in other animals it happens around the same time. Available now at the disposal of scientists studies conducted on representatives of different species of mammals, indicate that the placenta from mother to fetus moves a significant amount of thyroid hormones. In addition, the placenta contains a deiodinase that converts thyroxine Thyroxine - the main thyroid hormone  Thyroxine - the main thyroid hormone
   in triiodothyronine.

 Deficit | Thyroid hormones during pregnancy and fetal development

There are three types of conditions associated with a deficiency of thyroid hormones Deficiency of thyroid hormone - revealed a previously unknown reason  Deficiency of thyroid hormone - revealed a previously unknown reason
 Which can affect the development of the fetus:

  • Maternal hypothyroidism is usually not a cause fetal hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism more frequently in women causes infertility) .  When pregnancy in women with low levels of thyroid hormones still occurs, there is an increased risk of fetal death gestational hypertension .  Subclinical hypothyroidism is now increasingly considered as one of the causes of many more or less serious congenital disorders .  In several studies have found that milder forms of hypothyroidism in the mother, diagnosed only after the end of pregnancy, can lead to the fact that the child's performance on IQ tests will be slightly below normal, and it will experience significant learning difficulties .  The most common causes of subclinical hypothyroidism is an autoimmune disease in which the antithyroid antibodies pass through the placenta .  Thus, the cause of this disorder can be a passive immune attack on the thyroid gland of the fetus .
  • Fetal hypothyroidism. This disorder is also called congenital hypothyroidism; it is caused by a violation of the thyroid gland of the fetus, resulting in it does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Most children who have developed a violation even in utero are born perfectly healthy, because during pregnancy they received thyroid hormones from the mother. It is important to start treatment of the child as soon as possible after birth. Otherwise, he faces cretinism - delayed mental and physical development. Through careful examination of pregnant women and newborns in many developed countries fetal hypothyroidism is no longer a serious problem - his fast time to identify and begin to heal.
  • Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism both mother and fetus, so that the developing child in the womb can not get enough thyroid hormones through the placenta. We can say that iodine deficiency - the most easily preventable cause of mental retardation in the world. If the expectant mother is suffering from iodine deficiency and do not take food supplements, the child may develop cretinism, it is also possible deafness and dumbness.

According to WHO, in 1990, 20 million people in the world were more or less serious damage to the structure of the brain, resulting from iodine deficiency in utero. Endemic iodine deficiency is one of the most serious public health problems in many parts of the world, including parts of Europe, Asia, Africa and South America. In these areas, moreover, a substantial portion of the adult population have different thyroid disorders Thyroid disease - women at risk  Thyroid disease - women at risk
 For example, goiter, Graves' disease, and so on. Cretinism may occur in 5-10% of the descendants of these people, and about 25% can be observed mild forms of mental retardation Mental retardation - if the mind is underdeveloped  Mental retardation - if the mind is underdeveloped
 . This is a very serious problem, but its appearance is quite easy to prevent.

Impact of maternal hypothyroidism on the child's cognitive function has been studied in several studies. Within some of these women with low levels of thyroid hormones were prophylactic treatment. The results of these studies are inconsistent, and it is unclear how useful are preventive measures. However, it found that the negative effects of iodine deficiency can be avoided in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy the mother will take iodine supplements. If you start prophylaxis in the third trimester, to prevent the development of mental retardation, it is not likely to succeed.

By the way, animal iodine deficiency also causes serious problems. For example, sheep, cows, pigs and horses due to lack of iodine increases the frequency of stillborn pups; moreover, it increases the likelihood that the baby is born weak, and its weight and height to be less than normal.

 Deficit | Thyroid hormones during pregnancy and fetal development

Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy

Gestational hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of several serious complications, such as preeclampsia, preterm labor, fetal or neonatal death, and low birth weight. Furthermore, due to hyperthyroidism, a child may develop Graves disease in which the body of the patient produced autoantibodies to the TSH receptor.

Article Tags:
  • thyroid gland

Herpes during pregnancy: a danger for the child - Effects

January 20, 2014

  • Herpes during pregnancy: a danger for the child
  • Danger
  • Effects

 herpes during pregnancy consequences

Herpes during pregnancy: implications

How dangerous is the herpes during pregnancy? The herpes virus during pregnancy may not affect its current, but only if the woman caught them before pregnancy, and she has developed immunity to the disease. The consequence of primary herpes transferred during pregnancy is often the intrauterine herpes. Intrauterine herpes - an infection caused by the herpes virus (usually a HSV-2) infection which occurred during pregnancy or childbirth. Sometimes this infection incorrectly called "genetic herpes during pregnancy." But herpes - it's not a genetic disease, it is not inherited.

Intrauterine herpes - this is a very serious disease that affects the fruit. It develops most often in the primary HSV-2 infection during pregnancy. However, the cause may be other types of herpes virus; HSV-1 virus, varicella-zoster, cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus - what is its danger?  Cytomegalovirus - what is its danger?
   and so on. Aggravation of herpes during pregnancy is almost never leads to the development of intrauterine infection. Recurrence of herpes during pregnancy is manifested in the form of local changes in the skin and mucous membranes of the mother. Specific immunity does not allow spread of herpes infection to the fetus

How does herpes on the fetus? Intrauterine herpes symptoms depend on the time of infection of the fetus. If this occurs during the first two weeks after conception, then there is fetal death and miscarriage Miscarriage - can you protect yourself from it?  Miscarriage - can you protect yourself from it?
 . Upon infection of the fetus during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy develop malformations of various organs, the tab which takes place in this period. From the 10th to 28th week of pregnancy the fetus develops as a result of generalized infection (with the defeat of many organs and systems) inflammatory response, which leads to the formation of multiple malformations. While infecting the fetus from 28 to 40 weeks of pregnancy the inflammatory process is more limited and malformations may develop in several organs. Upon infection during childbirth often develops defeat one or two organs (eg, lung, liver, etc.) Or the appearance of generalized herpes sores on the skin and mucous membranes.

Almost always intrauterine herpes it takes very seriously. The effects of herpes during pregnancy can be in the form of fetal death or total disability of the unborn child. But in some cases prenatal herpes does not leave serious consequences, although this happens very rarely.


How to distinguish acute herpes during pregnancy by primary herpetic infection

By appearances of herpes it can be difficult to distinguish primary from recurrent chronic herpes. The fact that women after herpes infection can occur for a long time in an asymptomatic form, and the first symptoms appear only during pregnancy. But in this case the woman already has immunity Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults  Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults
   to the herpes virus and the risk to the fetus is very small. Primary herpes may occur in the same way, but the threat to the fetus is increased many times.

In order to distinguish between primary herpes recurrence necessary to laboratory investigations. Herpes levels in pregnant women is possible to identify a variety of ways. Analysis of herpes during pregnancy can lead by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the scrapes and swabs taken from the lesions in the genital area of ​​women as well as in blood and amniotic fluid can detect herpes virus DNA and identify it.

Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in blood and amniotic fluid can detect antibodies to herpes pregnancy. This allows you to distinguish primary from recurrent herpes secondary. In primary infection during the first week of class antibodies appear M (IgM - IgM), their number increases during the first two - three weeks of the disease, and in two or three months, these antibodies disappear. But sometimes, the antibodies of IgM can be found at relapse herpes. From the second week of the disease begin to appear in the blood of antibodies to the herpes virus class G (immunoglobulin G - IgG), which remain in the patient's blood for life.

Of great importance is the definition of the degree of maturity of antibodies Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity  Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity
   IgG class, which is expressed in the degree of strength of relation (avidity) to the antigen, i.e. with a herpes virus. During primary infection IgG maturity is low and only a few months after infection, their maturity becomes high. This study provides a high degree of confidence to determine whether an acute herpes infection of primary or recurrent chronic process.


Herpes after childbirth

Sometimes recurrent herpes develops after birth and it is also dangerous for the baby, as it can become infected by sick mother. But this does not mean that a woman should not breastfeed: herpes virus is not excreted in breast milk. But with dirty hands or through clothes, the herpes virus may get to the baby. Therefore, for the prevention of infection should be carefully observe good personal hygiene.


Pregnancy after herpes - can give birth to a healthy baby?

Despite the fact that the herpes virus, once introduced into the body, it remains there forever, the birth of a healthy baby is quite real. Harmful if herpes during pregnancy? How dangerous is the herpes during pregnancy? Herpes during pregnancy proceeds differently depending on whether the infection is primary or secondary. Even if the previous pregnancy ended in the death of a child due to intrauterine herpes, it can not affect the course of a subsequent pregnancy if the woman was the subject of proper and timely treatment.

The fact that at the time of re-occurrence of pregnancy in a woman's body has formed antibodies to the herpes virus, which will protect the fetus from infection. That is why herpes during pregnancy - this is not a tragedy, but a reason to think seriously about their health and upon the occurrence of a new pregnancy diligently all prescription.

Article Tags:
  • herpes