Pregnancy - special period in a woman's life, at this time there is a rearrangement of all biochemical processes in the body and metabolism in general. All this can cause malfunctions of the body of mother and negatively affect the health of the child. One such fault is diabetes
Diabetes - threatening and incurable disease
How and why there is diabetes in pregnancy
Diabetes in pregnancy is not an uncommon phenomenon. Increased blood sugar
Blood sugar - a very important indicator
common in many pregnant women, but diabetes develops in about one in ten women. Such diabetes called gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The reason for increase in blood sugar in pregnant women - hormonal changes.
To understand how this happens, it is necessary to know the basic principles of carbohydrate metabolism
. Carbohydrates - a source of energy that is used for all human activities: the biochemical processes inside of his body, breathing, heartbeat, work, sports, etc.
. Carbohydrates ingested with food, enteric decomposed into simple sugars and absorbed into the blood
. From the blood glucose as a fuel is supplied to the cells - that is what sustains life in our body
. Glucose residues are converted into glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles as glucose reserves
. But glucose can not get into a cell without the hormone insulin, which is produced by special cells of the pancreas
. Therefore, even if a person's blood glucose more than normal, but not enough insulin or insulin for some reason can not do its job, the body begins to lack of energy, and violated all the biochemical processes - this is the diabetes
The cause of diabetes is the development of the body of pregnant pregnancy hormones that inhibit the action of insulin. That is, insulin is, but inhibited its ability to be absorbed by the body of the mother. This physiological mechanism by which glucose gets to the part of the fetus. A mother's body as an energetic material starts to use fat and protein. Begin such changes in a woman's body for about 4 months pregnant. When blood sugar rises early, most likely, it is said that a woman in the past suffered latent diabetes, and pregnancy just revealed it.
A slight increase in blood sugar levels are in many women, and is developing GDM, not all, but only those women who have a certain predisposition. This predisposition to disease proceeds under the influence of factors such as obesity, age greater than 35 years, presence of endocrine diseases. To suggest the possibility of GDM in a pregnant woman can be, if it were labor, accompanied by polyhydramnios, stillbirth, a child with a large weight (4 kg or more), a child with developmental disabilities. Such women are predisposed to as spontaneous abortions and miscarriages. It has the meaning and the presence of close relatives of patients with diabetes.
After birth, all the signs disappear GDM. But it also happens that pregnancy brings out the true diabetes, who after giving birth does not pass.
Symptoms of diabetes in pregnant women
In less severe diabetes in pregnant women it can not be shown. That is why all women during pregnancy several times checked blood sugar. In more severe cases it appears dry mouth, thirst, excessive urination.
GDM complicates the course of pregnancy, there is a risk of gestosis (toxicosis of late pregnancy) with edema, high blood pressure, the appearance of protein in the urine
The protein in the urine - a sign of danger, which should not be underestimated
(sign of kidney damage) and changes in the brain in the form of seizures and impaired consciousness. Women with GDM increases the risk of miscarriage, polyhydramnios, fetal birth of large (and hence complications in childbirth), and various urinary tract infections (diabetes mellitus reduced immunity).
The I - II trimester of pregnancy in healthy women fasting glucose decreases and increases in the second half. Thus, in healthy pregnant women in the blood glucose level after meal is higher than in non-pregnant women (4-5, 2 mmol / l at a rate of 3, 3 - 5, 5 mmol / L).
How does gestational diabetes in the child's condition
HSD adversely affects not only the mother but also the baby. Fetus develop characteristic changes called diabetic fetopathy. Such a child, in spite of a lot of weight (often up to 4 kg), has a functional underdevelopment of many organs and systems: the nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, metabolic disorders, and so on. This is due to the fact that during pregnancy the fetus grows irregularly, then it slows its growth (when blood from mother to fetus receives little sugar), then accelerated (arrives too much sugar), which is caused by changing the amount of hormones in the mother's blood.
How is diabetes in pregnancy
In milder forms of GDM women are recommended to change the diet: eliminate from it all digestible carbohydrates, that is all sweet and rich. If the blood sugar level
Blood sugar - one of the main indicators of human health
It remains the same or increases, the prescribed insulin preparations. Women should not be afraid of such a treatment, because it is the prevention of various complications of pregnancy and diabetic fetopathy a child.
If, despite treatment, the weight of the baby is growing very rapidly and exceeds the norm, delivery is recommended for 2 - 3 weeks ahead of schedule by induction of labor or caesarean section.
Prevention of complications of diabetes in pregnant women is regular monitoring in the antenatal clinic.