- Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
- How is
Meningitis - inflammation of the tissues, membranes of the brain and spinal cord, which can be caused by a number of bacteria, viruses, and, in rare cases, fungal microorganisms. Quite often complicated by meningitis, septicemia - blood poisoning bacteria, especially if the development of meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria.
Description meningitis was first mentioned in the writings of the Greek physician Paul of Aegina in the 7th century, and Avicenna in the 11th century. In the mid-18th century, the spread of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis English physician described Waite. Even after a hundred years of Russian doctor P.A.Charukovsky described in detail the signs of meningitis
Symptoms of meningitis - cerebral symptoms
What is meningitis
Meningitis - an inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord. Since several of the meninges, distinguish meningitis - an inflammation of the arachnoid and soft shells, arachnoiditis - inflammation of the arachnoid and pachymeningitis - inflammation of the dura mater. But actually, the term "meningitis" means mainly meningitis.
When different kinds of intoxication on the background of infection, poisoning and so on can occur irritation of the meninges, which is not true due to inflammation in them. Such a state, in contrast to meningitis called meningism.
Mortality from meningitis caused it depends on the pathogen.
Considered the most dangerous meningococcal infection: before the advent of antibiotics from her dying 7 patients out of 10. After the advent of antibiotics reduced mortality and mortality today depends largely on how quickly the patient will be prescribed appropriate treatment. If treatment is given promptly, the prognosis is favorable.
Serous meningitis in most cases ends in recovery.
Types of Meningitis
The disease Meningitis can be caused by different reasons and in different ways to proceed. Therefore, there are many types of meningitis and several classifications. Variations in character meningitis secrete inflammation and changes in cerebrospinal fluid divided by purulent meningitis (usually of bacterial origin) and serosal (viral or any other origin).
Meningitis is also divided into primary meningitis, which develops its own, and the secondary meningitis, which is a complication of some other diseases.
Secondary meningitis that develops in tumors and kollagenozah, always wears a serous character.
The classification of causes of meningitis - identifies the following forms of meningitis:
A - purulent forms: menningokokkovy (epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis), pneumococcal caused stick Afanasiev-Pfeiffer (hemophilic meningitis), staphylococcal meningitis, streptococcal meningitis, gonococcal meningitis, meningitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella meningitis, typhoid meningitis kolibatsillyarny meningitis listeriozny meningitis .
B - serous forms: tuberculous meningitis
TB meningitis - the consequences of the spread of the pathogen
Syphilitic meningitis, meningitis mycoplasmal, leptospiral meningitis.
- Viral meningitis (serous)
A - acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis benign; B - caused by the mumps virus (mumps meningitis); In - called enteroviruses Coxsackie and ECHO; G - herpetic meningitis (herpes meningitis), D - flu-like meningitis and E - caused by HIV infection (meningitis and HIV - a combination of not so rare).
- Fungal meningitis and meningitis caused by protozoa (serous or purulent)
A - blastomikozny meningitis B - koktsidoidozny meningitis B - Toxoplasma meningitis, T - Candida meningitis, D - mukorozny meningitis, E - amebic meningitis.
By the nature of the flow is divided into fulminant meningitis, acute, subacute and chronic. Chronic meningitis is developing, such as syphilis.
According to an advantageous arrangement of inflammation secrete basal meningitis (with a predominant localization process on the lower surface of the brain), convexital meningitis (on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres), Mesodiencephalic meningitis (involving midbrain and hypothalamic region) spinal meningitis (in the spinal cord) .
Causes of meningitis
Purulent meningitis can be caused by almost all bacteria, protozoa and fungi. However, in practice, this disease is caused by a relatively small number of pathogens: menningokokkami (more than half of all cases of purulent meningitis), pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae. Causes of meningitis may be other, often found today meningitis caused by Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
There are serous meningitis outbreaks enteroviral origin, was first documented and confirmed by laboratory in the middle of the last century. This infection tends to spread, especially in summer and autumn.
Secondary Meningitis often develops as a complication of inflammation of upper respiratory tract and periodontal tissue. For rhinogenous meningitis develops against the background of infectious and inflammatory processes in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Very often this combination as sinusitis and meningitis. In diseases of the middle and inner ear may develop meningitis otogenny
Otogenny meningitis - complication of inflammatory processes in the ear
, Diseases of the periodontal tissues - odontogenic meningitis. After emergency brain surgery often developed postoperative meningitis.
There is also a toxic meningitis that develops in cases of poisoning by various toxic substances (eg acetone).
What changes in the brain and spinal cord causing meningitis
Pathological changes in meningitis occur not only in the meninges of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis of the brain - the cerebral meningitis, meningitis, spinal cord - spinal meningitis), but also in the inner membrane lining the brain cavity (ependyma) and wreath of blood vessels in the ventricles .
This form of inflammation, and the main symptoms of meningitis
Symptoms of meningitis: treat only in hospital
depends on the properties of the pathogen. So, most serous meningitis caused by viruses, purulent - bacterial (most coccal) microflora, and chronic process - fungi and protozoa.
But it is the relative representation of what happens in the brain and spinal cord. For example, in purulent meningitis first two days of the inflammatory process has a serous character.
When time begun treatment purulent exudate is subjected to enzymatic degradation and absorption, but in some cases it is organized. Forming adhesions in the shells and the ventricles of the brain. Develop chronic purulent meningitis, characterized by the formation of adhesions and closed purulent or serous cavities between the sheets soft shell.
Adhesions can also be formed in the ventricles of the brain to form a cavity filled with pus or cerebrospinal fluid. Sclerotherapy (proliferation of connective tissue) followed by obliteration of the meninges (imperforate lumen) of the blood vessels located in this area. This so-called chronic productive meningitis. All this leads to disruption of circulation of cerebrospinal fluid and the formation of hydrocephalus (dropsy of brain). All of these changes can occur. As after the acute inflammatory process, and without it, starting immediately with chronic inflammation.
If the effusion contains red blood cells, the soft shell turns red - this is called a hemorrhagic meningitis.