Antihistamines against allergies: are they safe?

December 18, 2011

  • Antihistamines against allergies: are they safe?
  • The preparations of the new generation
  • Operating principle
  • Application
  • Treatment
  • In bronchial asthma

 antihistamines for allergies
 Antihistamines are usually manufactured in pill form - the most popular and widespread for the treatment of allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis Rhinitis: a runny nose - is quite serious  Rhinitis: a runny nose - is quite serious
   and hay fever (pollen allergy). Moreover, antihistamines are used for the treatment of urticaria, the special form of skin rash, resulting from the body's reaction to the allergen.

Especially useful antihistamines for people suffering from hay fever - antihistamines help relieve the symptoms of allergy Allergy symptoms: Survival Guide Spring  Allergy symptoms: Survival Guide Spring
 From a runny nose and sneezing to watery eyes and itching sensations.

 Antihistamines against allergies: are they safe?

How are antihistamines?

Allergic reaction is accompanied by the release of a special chemical, histamine, which causes skin rash, runny nose, itching and other unpleasant symptoms of allergies. Histamine causes dilation of capillaries, increasing the permeability of blood vessels and increased allocation Discharges in women when there is cause for concern  Discharges in women when there is cause for concern
   secreting glands of the nasal cavity. Antihistamines - chemical compounds that block the action of histamine.

Histamine is involved not only in the reaction of the organism to an allergen, but also plays an important role in the brain: it is responsible for histamine concentration, attention, brain activity. Therefore, by blocking histamine, antihistamines simultaneously cause drowsiness, apathy, impaired attention.

Fortunately, not all antihistamines have such a pronounced sedative effect: disruption of the central nervous system causing a so-called first-generation antihistamines, most older drugs, today spread to a lesser degree. Antihistamines are the new generation, meanwhile, facilitate allergy symptoms without affecting the brain.

 Antihistamines against allergies: are they safe?

Are they safe?

All, without exception, drugs have side effects, and antihistamines - is no exception. Antihistamines new generation - one of the most secure forms of drugs, however, and these drugs have several side effects.

The greatest number of side effects - from the first generation antihistamines: they cause drowsiness, making it difficult to drive the car, training and other activities of daily living that require attention and concentration. In fact, the first generation antihistamines act on the brain in much the same way as alcohol.

No less serious side effects are typical for the two antihistamines second generation, whose production stopped today. Terfenadine and astemizole in overdose or in combination with other medicines can cause malfunction of the heart, in rare cases leading to death.

In the case of terfenadine problem was solved most effectively: a few years ago, scientists have developed fexofenadine, an active metabolite of terfenadine, which has all the advantages of terfenadine, without causing disorders of the cardiovascular system. Today fexofenadine belongs to the group of antihistamines third, the latest generation and is sold in various European countries and the United States under various trade names (in the UK - Telfast, in the United States - Allegra).

Accepted provide two basic types of antihistamines - antihistamines are the first generation that cause drowsiness, and new antihistamines that do not have a sedative effect. Acceptance of first-generation antihistamines in most cases, is not recommended - though in some cases, the doctor prescribes is the first generation of drugs to normalize sleep Dreams: how to understand our dreams  Dreams: how to understand our dreams
 . New antihistamines are not less effective and, subject to the recommended dosage does not cause side effects. Modern antihistamines in the group of the third generation antihistamines are considered the safest for human health.

Hydrocortisone - ointment for external use

February 8, 2014

 Hydrocortisone Ointment
 Hydrocortisone - ointment and eye ointment has been successfully used to treat skin and eye diseases and injuries, accompanied by severe tissue edema and itching. A short course of treatment usually leads to rapid improvement of the patient's condition. Long hydrocortisone ointment is not applicable.


Hydrocortisone - ointment for external use

1% ointment for topical hydrocortisone is available in tubes of 10 g active compound ointment is a semi-synthetic glucocorticosteroid (GCS) hydrocortisone acetate. When applied to the skin ointment hydrocortisone inhibits the release of biologically active substances responsible for the development of inflammatory and allergic processes (prostaglandins and cytokines) from the blood cells. Under the influence of hydrocortisone reduced inflammatory cell infiltrates, inhibited the migration of leukocytes and lymphocytes in the area of ​​inflammation. When used in the form of short courses of treatment in limited areas of the skin does not cause suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system.

Hydrocortisone ointment applied as part of an integrated treatment of inflammatory and allergic skin diseases - atopic dermatitis (including neurodermatitis), eczema, atopic dermatitis and simple, psoriasis, photodermatosis, itching of various origins, insect bites, planus. Children two years after the ointment is applied with caution not more than once a day and on a small surface.

A thin layer of ointment applied to the skin 2-3 times a day for one to two weeks. Thereafter, ointments active substance accumulates in the epidermis. Hydrocortisone partially decomposed in the epidermis and in part (after absorption in the blood) in the liver, the kidneys and excreted in the bile.

The side effects of the ointment may appear as redness, swelling and itching at the site of application, pustular rash (a result of reduced immunity of the skin), soak the skin. If you apply the ointment over two weeks, perhaps joining a secondary infection, skin atrophy, various pigmented and white spots on the skin White spots on skin - What are the causes and how to treat?  White spots on skin - What are the causes and how to treat?
 , Scars, areas of increased body hair.

Do not use this ointment if hypersensitivity, children up to two years (with itching in the anus - before the age of 12 years), infectious processes in the skin (in this case, if necessary, remove the swelling hydrocortisone ointment combined with use of antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral drugs ), tuberculosis, syphilis, skin tumors, skin changes after vaccination. Do not apply ointment on the open wounds and ulcers. With caution and only on prescription ointment is used during pregnancy and nursing Breastfeeding - a personal choice  Breastfeeding - a personal choice
   feeding, as well as diabetes and pulmonary tuberculosis.


Hydrocortisone - eye ointment

0, 5% hydrocortisone ophthalmic ointment is a greasy ointment homogeneous soft white. Available in tubes of 3 g When applied to the conjunctiva has anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antipruritic effect of suppressing the formation of biologically active substances involved in inflammatory and allergic processes, developing in the tissues of the eye after exposure to mechanical, chemical, or immune factors. Hydrocortisone prevents scarring at the site of injuries and diseases of the cornea.

Apply the ointment in inflammatory diseases of the conjunctiva, cornea, sclera, choroid, allergic diseases of the eye and eyelid margins, states after injuries (including burns), and eye surgery.

Ointment in a small amount (in the form of a strip) is inserted into the conjunctival sac of 2-3 times a day for one to two weeks. Hydrocortisone with almost misses the cornea during intraocular liquid but penetrate the surface layers of the skin and mucosa, partially entering the bloodstream and then decomposing the liver. Derived metabolites of hydrocortisone Hydrocortisone - a drug that could save the life of the patient  Hydrocortisone - a drug that could save the life of the patient
   through the kidneys and the bile.

Do not use this hydrocortisone ophthalmic ointment in purulent eye diseases, viral and fungal infections of the eye, the eye of tuberculosis Tuberculosis of the eye - how to recognize the disease  Tuberculosis of the eye - how to recognize the disease
 , Primary glaucoma, corneal epithelial defects, the age of two years and hypersensitive to the components of the drug.

Precautions hydrocortisone ophthalmic ointment is used during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Ointment in these cases is assigned to short courses and only for health reasons.

Side effects of eye ointment may manifest as delayed wound healing corneal defects with subsequent infection of the deeper parts of the eye, the development of glaucoma and cataracts. In young children, may be a manifestation of systemic side effects typical of glucocorticoids.

Galina Romanenko

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