- Sterilization - may be temporarily
- Male sterilization
All contraceptive methods based either on preventing fertilization or in preventing implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterine wall. Constantly develops and tests new means of contraception, but, unfortunately, none of them, except abstinence is not 100% effective.
Permanent contraceptive methods (surgical sterilization)
Sterilization is considered a permanent method of contraception
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. In some cases, the sterilization may be reversed, but the success of this procedure can not be guaranteed. For this reason, sterilization is only recommended for men and women who do not intend to have children in the future.
Vasectomy is a form of male sterilization. A vasectomy prevents the sperm out of the penis during ejaculation during intercourse.
Vasectomy usually performs a urologist or a surgeon. During the procedure, which is performed under local anesthesia, is detached from the testicles vas deferens; surgery is performed through two small openings in the scrotum. After a vasectomy for some time saved soreness and bruising in the area of the seam.
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and the amount of liquid that is ejected during an ejaculation. After the man passed a vasectomy, he needs to use for an additional means of contraception as long as semen does not remain sperm. This usually occurs within 10-20 ejaculations.
Recovery of fertility after a vasectomy is possible, but the procedure is expensive, and its effectiveness can not be guaranteed. Therefore vasectomy should be considered as one form of sterilization.
Vasectomy does not protect a man or his partner from sexually transmitted diseases by.
Tubal ligations performed under general or local anesthesia; As a rule, it is an outpatient procedure. The surgeon uses one of several possible procedures for accessing the fallopian tubes. Laparoscopy - a procedure in which a small incision is made just below the navel. Through this incision a laparoscope is inserted that allows you to see and manipulate the fallopian tubes. Minilaparotomy - operation, during which the incision is made in the lower abdomen; most often this method is used when tubal ligation do soon after birth.
Then block the fallopian tubes in some way - bandage, cut or cauterize. Duration of treatment ranged from 10 to 45 minutes.
Among the side effects of tubal ligation - infection, bleeding, and various complications associated with general anesthesia.
After the procedure egg can no longer pass from the ovaries to the uterus, and therefore impregnation becomes impossible. Tubal ligation does not normally have any effect on the menstrual cycle and hormone production in women.
Fertility after a tubal ligation may and usually more likely to succeed than men who underwent vasectomy.
Like a vasectomy, tubal ligation does not protect a woman and her partner from sexually transmitted diseases by. In addition, tubal ligation is not absolutely reliable contraception, and after the procedure saved a small chance of getting pregnant. Pregnancy after tubal ligation occurs in less than 2% of women and, usually, the younger woman who has passed this procedure, the greater the chance of pregnancy.
In recent years, some experts have begun to pay attention to the fact that women who have had tubal ligation, often complain of menstrual irregularities, hot flashes, mood swings
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. It is assumed that this is due to the procedure as a result of impaired blood flow to the ovaries. In addition, there are cases where tubal ligation affect the sexual behavior and emotional health of women. However, conducted several years of research involving 9500 women were not able to confirm the link between the appearance of these symptoms and tubal ligation.
Hysteroscopic sterilization - a non-surgical forms of permanent contraception. Using the laparoscope, through the cervix, the doctor inserts into the fallopian tubes spiral
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4 cm long. During the following months the spiral grows tissue that forms a plug, preventing the penetration of the egg in the uterus.
The procedure takes about thirty minutes, and usually requires only a local anesthetic. Within three months after the procedure is necessary to use additional methods of contraception.
It is a form of contraception permanent and irreversible. Approximately 6% of the cases in women after hysteroscopic sterilization have side effects, mainly related to improper location spirals.