Miscarriage - can you protect yourself from it?

September 30, 2006

  • Miscarriage - can you protect yourself from it?
  • Causes
  • Treatment

   Miscarriage - a spontaneous termination of pregnancy for up to twenty weeks. Approximately 15-20% of pregnancies end in miscarriage. The exact percentage is not known, because it is impossible to consider all abortions in the very early stages of pregnancy, a woman may not even be aware that she was pregnant. Most miscarriages occur due to improper development of the fetus.



Most miscarriages happen during the twelfth week of pregnancy. Symptoms begin to abortion are:

  • Vaginal bleeding (spotting bleeding can be a sign of miscarriage or implantation of the embryo, but it occurs at 1-2 weeks of gestation)
  • Pain and cramping in the lower abdomen and lower back
  • Output pieces of tissue or fluid from the vagina

If you know you are pregnant, with the appearance of these symptoms, call your doctor.


Genetic or chromosomal anomalies

  • Most miscarriages associated with abnormalities of fetal development Fetal development - week after week  Fetal development - week after week
 . These in turn may be the result of errors occurring during cell division and growth of the embryo, and this is not always inherited from parents fault violation. Among the most frequent abnormalities of fetal development occur:
  • Empty fertilized egg. It happens that a fertilized egg forms the placenta and the membrane, but not the embryo. Empty ovum is the cause of about half of the abortions that take place during the first twelve weeks of pregnancy.
  • Intrauterine fetal death. In this case the fetus dies before there are any symptoms of pregnancy termination. This may be due to genetic abnormalities in the embryo.
  • Molar pregnancy or gestational trophoblastic disease is less common - about 1 time per 1000 pregnancies. When a molar pregnancy, the placenta develops in the rapidly growing cystic mass in the uterus. In this mass may be the embryo. If the embryo is, it can not develop normally.


Health problems in the mother

Much less often lead to miscarriage violations, available in the mother, such as:

  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • Thyroid disease
  • Infection
  • Hormonal disorders
  • Structural or other problems associated with the uterus and / or cervix

Contrary to popular belief, do not cause miscarriage sports, sex and work, except in cases when a woman exposed to harmful chemicals.


Risk factors

  • Age. In women older than 35 years the probability of miscarriage is higher than in younger women. In 35 years, the risk of miscarriage of about 20%, 40 - 40%, and 45 - 80%. Age child's father may also have value. Some researchers believe that the risk of miscarriage is higher in women zaberenevshih of men 35 years and older, even if the woman is less than 35 years. The risk increases in proportion to the age of the partner.
  • Miscarriages history. In women, whose history of more than one of miscarriage, the likelihood of miscarriage in subsequent pregnancies higher than other patients. After a miscarriage, this probability is only slightly increased.
  • Chronic diseases. Women having chronic diseases, such as diabetes or disorders of the thyroid gland The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones  The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones
 It increases the likelihood that her pregnancy will end in miscarriage.
  • Smoking, alcohol abuse, and receive illicit drugs significantly increase the risk of miscarriage. In addition, these habits increase the likelihood of various congenital anomalies of the fetus.

Some women during an abortion uterine infection develops. It is also called septic abortion. Its symptoms include fever, chills, pain in muscles and joints, thick vaginal discharge The whole truth about vaginal secretions  The whole truth about vaginal secretions
   with an unpleasant odor.

As evidenced by the results of numerous studies, approximately 10 - 25% of all registered clinical pregnancies end in miscarriage. According to experts, the percentage of pregnancy loss is 50 - 75%, but this figure can not be relied upon, as it is often the woman becomes pregnant, not even knowing about it.

Most miscarriages falls on the first thirteen weeks of pregnancy. Without a doubt, the expectation of the child - the most important period in the life of a woman, but in a growing risk of miscarriage should be to learn more about the possible loss of pregnancy if, unfortunately, in this situation you find yourself or someone you know.

With abortion involves a lot of confusing terms and situations in which non-professional is not easy to understand. There are various types of miscarriage, a different treatment for each type, as well as various statistics pregnancy loss as a result of a miscarriage. As is the case with most of the complications of pregnancy, with any questions you best to contact your doctor.

Sterilization - may be temporarily

April 19, 2009

  • Sterilization - may be temporarily
  • Male sterilization

 All contraceptive methods based either on preventing fertilization or in preventing implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterine wall. Constantly develops and tests new means of contraception, but, unfortunately, none of them, except abstinence is not 100% effective.

 Sterilization - may be temporarily

Permanent contraceptive methods (surgical sterilization)

Sterilization is considered a permanent method of contraception Contraceptive Methods: Ten myths about contraception in the mirror of facts  Contraceptive Methods: Ten myths about contraception in the mirror of facts
 . In some cases, the sterilization may be reversed, but the success of this procedure can not be guaranteed. For this reason, sterilization is only recommended for men and women who do not intend to have children in the future.

 Sterilization - may be temporarily


Vasectomy is a form of male sterilization. A vasectomy prevents the sperm out of the penis during ejaculation during intercourse.

Vasectomy usually performs a urologist or a surgeon. During the procedure, which is performed under local anesthesia, is detached from the testicles vas deferens; surgery is performed through two small openings in the scrotum. After a vasectomy for some time saved soreness and bruising in the area of ​​the seam.

Vasectomy no effect on erection Erection - what hinders and what helps a man to be a man  Erection - what hinders and what helps a man to be a man
   and the amount of liquid that is ejected during an ejaculation. After the man passed a vasectomy, he needs to use for an additional means of contraception as long as semen does not remain sperm. This usually occurs within 10-20 ejaculations.

Recovery of fertility after a vasectomy is possible, but the procedure is expensive, and its effectiveness can not be guaranteed. Therefore vasectomy should be considered as one form of sterilization.

Vasectomy does not protect a man or his partner from sexually transmitted diseases by.

 Sterilization - may be temporarily

Tubal ligation

Tubal ligations performed under general or local anesthesia; As a rule, it is an outpatient procedure. The surgeon uses one of several possible procedures for accessing the fallopian tubes. Laparoscopy - a procedure in which a small incision is made just below the navel. Through this incision a laparoscope is inserted that allows you to see and manipulate the fallopian tubes. Minilaparotomy - operation, during which the incision is made in the lower abdomen; most often this method is used when tubal ligation do soon after birth.

Then block the fallopian tubes in some way - bandage, cut or cauterize. Duration of treatment ranged from 10 to 45 minutes.

Among the side effects of tubal ligation - infection, bleeding, and various complications associated with general anesthesia.

After the procedure egg can no longer pass from the ovaries to the uterus, and therefore impregnation becomes impossible. Tubal ligation does not normally have any effect on the menstrual cycle and hormone production in women.

Fertility after a tubal ligation may and usually more likely to succeed than men who underwent vasectomy.

Like a vasectomy, tubal ligation does not protect a woman and her partner from sexually transmitted diseases by. In addition, tubal ligation is not absolutely reliable contraception, and after the procedure saved a small chance of getting pregnant. Pregnancy after tubal ligation occurs in less than 2% of women and, usually, the younger woman who has passed this procedure, the greater the chance of pregnancy.

In recent years, some experts have begun to pay attention to the fact that women who have had tubal ligation, often complain of menstrual irregularities, hot flashes, mood swings Mood swings in women - bad character or a disease?  Mood swings in women - bad character or a disease?
 . It is assumed that this is due to the procedure as a result of impaired blood flow to the ovaries. In addition, there are cases where tubal ligation affect the sexual behavior and emotional health of women. However, conducted several years of research involving 9500 women were not able to confirm the link between the appearance of these symptoms and tubal ligation.

 Sterilization - may be temporarily

Hysteroscopic sterilization

Hysteroscopic sterilization - a non-surgical forms of permanent contraception. Using the laparoscope, through the cervix, the doctor inserts into the fallopian tubes spiral Intrauterine device - how to avoid complications?  Intrauterine device - how to avoid complications?
   4 cm long. During the following months the spiral grows tissue that forms a plug, preventing the penetration of the egg in the uterus.

The procedure takes about thirty minutes, and usually requires only a local anesthetic. Within three months after the procedure is necessary to use additional methods of contraception.

It is a form of contraception permanent and irreversible. Approximately 6% of the cases in women after hysteroscopic sterilization have side effects, mainly related to improper location spirals.

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