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In adolescence, many are faced with the emergence of dandruff
Dandruff: where it comes from, and what to do
and greasy on the skin. Some are preserved in later life. Not all perceive this condition as a disease, while oily skin - a manifestation of seborrhea.
What is seborrhea, and because of what it occurs
Seborrhea - a disease which is associated with a dysfunction of the sebaceous glands and is manifested by excessive sebum secretion and changes in its chemical composition. Most often this condition occurs at puberty, but may develop in any other age.
Teenagers on the background of the age of hormonal changes the body increases the secretion of the sebaceous glands, that is, there is a physiological seborrhea. Normally it disappears at the end of puberty.
Seborrhea reasons not completely understood. An important role is played in its emergence hereditary factors and pathological changes in the sebaceous glands. Violation of sebum is due to changes in hormonal status of the patient: increased production of androgens and estrogens reduce production.
Sebum and its composition depends on the endocrine and nervous systems, gastrointestinal, gender, person's age, the nature of power and the presence of concomitant diseases. Seborrhea in sebum increased content of fatty acids.
Because of changes in the quality of sebum recently losing bactericidal properties (ability to kill germs). This creates the conditions for the normal microflora of the skin become pathogenic (disease).
Bold, dry and mixed forms of seborrhea. The first of these, depending on the texture and composition of sebum is liquid and dense.
This kind of disease occurs in adolescence when increased secretory function of the sebaceous glands. Pathological changes visible on the scalp, face, chest and between the shoulder blades.
The skin in these areas becomes rough, oily, rough, shiny and gets dirty gray color. Expanding the mouth of the hair follicles and the scalp there is a set of large yellowish-white scales.
Located on the body surface bacteria (Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium acne) secrete enzymes that break down fats sebum to free fatty acids. The latter is irritating to the skin and cause complications of the disease.
- The liquid form of oily seborrhea is more common in women and usually develops in adolescence. Because enlarged pores skin and looks like orange peel. When pressed on her in the nasolabial folds and cheeks of the sebaceous glands secrete liquid translucent oily sebum.
Hair stick together, become thin and look like them oiled. They are many yellowish scales.
More often than not, this form of seborrhea is complicated by pyoderma (pustular skin diseases). Sometimes people between the ages of twenty to twenty-four years, there is baldness, which first appears in the temporo-frontal, parietal and later department scalp. In men, hair loss increases with neuropsychiatric disorders and significant mental stress, and women - during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding).
- Dense form oily seborrhea occurs in young men between the ages of sixteen and twenty years. The skin becomes thick, its elasticity is reduced, and it becomes brownish-gray color. The mouth of the sebaceous glands greatly expanded. Often, the excretory duct becomes blocked tore prostate epithelial cells, which are impregnated with sebum. This forms a black acne (comedo). If you squeeze it, it stands out a dense mass.
This form of seborrhea is often complicated atheromas - cysts of the sebaceous glands of various sizes. If atheroma becomes inflamed, then after a while it opened, pus, and in its place formed a scar.
Thick oily seborrhea can also be accompanied by the appearance of boils (inflammation of the hair follicle and the surrounding tissues), abscess
Abscess - why it is so dangerous ulcers?
(inflammation in the tissues in which a cavity filled with pus). Vegetating pyoderma (purulent inflammation of the skin to form on it ulcers) and undermine folliculitis (chronic purulent inflammation of hair follicles) also complicate the seborrhea.
In this form of the disease hair is thick, hard and rough. On the scalp flakes firmly attached to the thickened skin.
Dry and Mixed seborrhea
Dry seborrhea often seen in children before puberty, because at this age the pilosebaceous unit is still underdeveloped. Separately isolated gneiss - seborrhea scalp that develops in infants in the first weeks of life. At the head of the scales appear dirty gray. After their removal visible red skin on which they arise again. When combing comb through small defects in the epidermis (outer layer of skin) is allocated inflammatory fluid. It dries up, and thereby form a continuous cover of yellow color.
In adults, when dry oily separation of sebum is reduced, and the horny scales covered with hair and scalp. This process is associated with the activation of a fungus called oval pitirosporum that many people have. It becomes pathogenic only under certain conditions (for example, lowered immunity or strenuous physical work). The microorganism increases peeling of the skin, which is usually accompanied by itching. The scales are easily separated and fall clothing. So there is dandruff. Hair with dry, thin, brittle, and cleaved ends.
Skin changes also appear on the extensor surfaces of the arms and legs and torso. In these parts of the body there are numerous reddish or skin color is usually small nodules in the center of which are often twisted hairs. These formations are covered with horny scales. At the touch of the skin resembles a grater. This condition is called keratosis pilaris.
Also, sometimes on the body appear seboreidy - reddish or pink spots, which are located on the surface of small flakes. A person may experience a feeling of tightness and itching of the skin, which becomes stronger after washing.
Mixed seborrhea is more common in men. On the face showing signs of oily seborrhea and scalp - dry. Sometimes develop mixed forms of oily seborrhea, oily liquid when the symptoms appear on the face seborrhea, and displays a thick oily - on the scalp.
Acne - a frequent complication of seborrhea
Acne - a chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands, which are often repeated. They occur during puberty in adolescents who suffer from oily or mixed form of seborrhea.
Acne Many factors contribute. Among them are of great importance:
- Genetic predisposition;
- Disorders of endocrine glands;
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- Drinking excessive amounts of carbohydrates and fats, irritating foods.
Increased excretion of fat due to the change in the ratio of androgens and estrogens. Also work glands affected even some hormones that bind to specific proteins.
Excessive sebum leads to keratinization (filling epithelial cell specific protein keratin) of the sebaceous glands. Recent hypertrophy (increase in size), there are comedones - blackheads. Stagnant sebum decomposes and serves as a good breeding ground for many microorganisms. Corynebacterium acne, oval pitirosporum and Staphylococcus aureus - the most common flora on the skin and in hair follicles.
Symptoms of Acne
Vulgar (youthful) eels - the most common type of this disease. Outwardly, they are hemispherical pink nodules, ranging in size from a pinhead to a pea. Eels are located on the face, chest and back.
In the center of the nodule appears abscess, after opening is formed on the surface of yellow crust. After healing of acne vulgaris forms a small scar or pigmentation remains. This form of rash often happens when the liquid oily seborrhea.
When a thick oily seborrhea process of separation of fat from the glands is difficult, there are many comedones, expand the mouth of the hair follicles. Elements of the rash does not appear only on the face, but also on the scalp, in the BTE folds on the back and chest. In tissues which surround comedones develop inflammation, acne and increase in size.
A few weeks later the resulting seal is softened and opened with the formation of cavities, from which stands out stringy pus. After acne heal on their place are formed deep scars.
When sebum is not output, it accumulates in the gland and its duct and stretches them. Since cysts are formed under the name of atheroma
Atheroma - it is better to remove
. They can inflame and fester, and then there are bluish-purple nodes.
Often there whiteheads (whitehead). They are dense knots milky-white color that look like sago grains.
A special form of acne - papillary dermatitis of the head (acne kelloid sclerosing folliculitis or occipital). It occurs in men between the ages of twenty to forty years. Eruptions are located at the back and on the back of the neck. Externally pathology looks like a group of nodules in the form of cord, the skin around them is much sealed. In these areas the hair grows beams.
Conglobata acne - a severe form of lesions in dense oily seborrhea. Also comedones and atheroma, there are major nodes located deep in the skin and subcutaneous fat. First, they are dense, painful and have a reddish-bluish color. The nodes are merged together and formed an abscess - a cavity that are filled with pus. Recently opened, and they spot formed nonhealing ulcers. In their place are jagged scars. These eels are located on the neck and back, at least on the face and chest.
Oily skin and hair loss
Hair loss (alopecia) - another frequent complication of seborrhea. The disease occurs in both men and women. It usually begins at puberty
Puberty child - stages of a complex path
First, there is a physiological seborrhea, when increased sebum glands. After a few years the number of the selected fat comes back to normal. But some people do not, and the hair starts to fall.
For this pathology characterized by hypertrophy of the sebaceous glands and the change in the composition of their emissions. The latter is due to the disruption to the endocrine and nervous systems.
When seborrheic alopecia in scalp person experiences itching, pain and feeling of constriction. Men between the ages of eighteen to twenty years, and thinning hair become less frequent in the temples and the crown, and in severe cases, bald on the crown is formed. For women, depression is characterized by hair in the frontal area. On the scalp appears dandruff flakes have a grayish-yellow color and can be easily separated.
When a thick oily seborrhea falls less hair than the liquid form of the disease, but this process captures all areas of the scalp. Persistent hair loss develops in about thirty years. When mixed form of hair loss is due to purulent inflammation of the follicles.
Oily skin can be a manifestation of seborrhea - a disease associated with a violation of the sebaceous glands, which leads to the appearance of cosmetic defects, and psychological discomfort. This condition requires treatment, which should deal with the doctor.