Smecta - necessary in any medicine cabinet

February 4, 2010

  • Smecta - necessary in any medicine cabinet
  • Absorbent drugs

 Smecta refers to anti-diarrheal drugs. It is used for the treatment of severe diarrhea Diarrhea (diarrhea) - a familiar nuisance  Diarrhea (diarrhea) - a familiar nuisance
   in humans and animals. Although some countries, this drug is not commercially available, it is considered safe and is often used in the treatment of both adults and children.

 Smecta - necessary in any medicine cabinet

How does smectite?

Active ingredient smectic - diosmectite, a substance which absorbs excess water, and the intestine and thereby effectively treats diarrhea. Smectite is also used to relieve inflammation of the digestive system, for the treatment of certain viral and bacterial diseases. Diosmectite itself is not absorbed by the intestine and excreted from the body in almost unchanged form.

Diosmectite - a kind of clay, which includes substances such as aluminum, magnesium and silicon. As it occurs in nature, it has long used to treat a variety of disorders of the digestive system in different parts of the world. As other species of clay, diosmectite binds water and owing to this property makes waste which displays bowel, thicker consistency.

 Smecta - necessary in any medicine cabinet

Side effects and interactions with other drugs

When used correctly, smectite rarely causes any health problems. It is considered safe even for children in the first year of life. Due to the relatively mild smectite treat diarrhea without disturbing the normal operation of the stomach and intestines, so the likelihood of constipation Constipation - Watch out for food  Constipation - Watch out for food
   or the appearance of spasmodic pain while taking this drug is quite low.

Smecta can interact with other drugs. If you are taking any medications, non-prescription drugs, vitamins or herbs before taking smekty ask your doctor or pharmacist, as far as they are compatible.

Studies since 2000 have shown that smectite significantly reduces the duration of severe diarrhea (what happens, for example, food poisoning), as well as reduces the amount of feces that pass through the human digestive system.

In most cases, within 2-3 days after starting treatment, patients have improved, although symptoms begin to subside almost immediately after the first dose. If no improvement is observed within a week after starting, you need to see a doctor. Probably, there is the underlying disease that must be cured before starting to treat diarrhea.

 Smecta - necessary in any medicine cabinet

Smecta when rotavirus

In addition to disorders of the digestive tract, the reception smekty sometimes recommended for patients with rotavirus Rotavirus: favorable prognosis  Rotavirus: favorable prognosis
 . This virus poses a serious threat to children's health, especially in developing countries, in particular, is a very severe diarrhea, which, if left untreated, can lead to exhaustion and dehydration, and death. Diosmektita ability to absorb not only liquid but also viruses and bacteria helps to cope with dangerous microorganisms that cause this disease and, at the same time, facilitates its symptoms.

Smectite can be taken during pregnancy and breast-feeding Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!  Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!
 . It has no negative impact on the health of the fetus or newborn, but it needs to be taken only when necessary and only after consulting your doctor.

 Smecta - necessary in any medicine cabinet

How to take smektu

Smecta is available as a powder for solution. One packet of powder dissolved in half a glass of lukewarm water (if the doctor's instructions otherwise stated) and are inside. If you give your child smektu, this solution can be mixed with baby food (it did not spoil the taste), porridge or mashed potatoes. In most cases, to achieve a good therapeutic effect smektu enough to take three times a day for three days. The course of treatment may be more, but rarely lasts longer than seven days.

Application smekty contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity of the patient to the ingredients of the drug and bowel obstruction.

If you are taking at the same time with the smectite any other medicines, between their intake should be sure to go 1-2 hours.

Side effects are rare at smekty; some patients have constipation that occurs when a dose reduction or discontinuation of the drug; smectite rarely causes fever vomiting.

Salmonella food poisoning - a danger which can be prevented

June 23 2013

  • Salmonella food poisoning - a danger which can be prevented
  • Treatment and Risk Factors
  • How to prevent
  • Gestation

 Salmonella food poisoning
 Salmonella food poisoning Food poisoning: how to avoid becoming a victim of its own stomach  Food poisoning: how to avoid becoming a victim of its own stomach
   It can cause both mild illness and lead to serious complications and even death. How to avoid it and what to do if the problem has already occurred?

 Salmonella food poisoning - a danger which can be prevented

Some facts about salmonellosis

  • Salmonella - a bacterium that can cause a variety of human diseases, such as gastroenteritis, typhoid, paratyphoid;
  • Salmonella gets to man a variety of ways - for example, through gryadnye fruits, vegetables and nuts, water, meat and eggs that have not undergone sufficient heat treatment;
  • Salmonella food poisoning is usually diagnosed based on the results of the analysis of feces How to pass a stool, so as not to spoil it  How to pass a stool, so as not to spoil it
  • Salmonellosis can be treated with antibiotics Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?  Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?
 However many people are not required;
  • There have been cases of mass diseases salmonellosis due to violations of conditions of production and processing of food;
  • Compliance with the rules of hygiene, thorough washing of fruits and vegetables, proper cooking can dramatically reduce the risk of salmonella Salmonellosis - features of the disease  Salmonellosis - features of the disease
  • Salmonella vaccines are available for birds and animals; People can be vaccinated is only of typhoid fever.

 Salmonella food poisoning - a danger which can be prevented

What is salmonella

Salmonella - a common name of the genus of bacteria; Salmonella is just about 2,500 species of bacteria. Salmonella - a rod-shaped, flagellated, gram-negative bacteria that can cause various diseases in humans, animals and birds. They are distributed throughout the world.

The most common illness caused by a salmonella - it is typhoid and gastroenteritis (netifozny salmonellosis). Infections caused by Salmonella or their toxins are a common name - salmonellosis. About Salmonella food poisoning speak, obviously, when the infection occurred through food.

Tiny Salmonella left a significant mark in the history of mankind. After examining the descriptions of the illness and death of Alexander the Great, scientists have suggested that he may have died from typhoid fever. The probability that this assumption is true, it is very great - Salmonella thrive in poor sanitary conditions, and during the war, especially - in the fourth century BC, the conditions certainly left much to be desired.

Salmonella was first obtained from the body of pigs in 1885 - this discovery belongs to the vet Theobald Smith. The name bacterium was named after Daniel Elmer Salmon, who was a colleague of Smith. In 1896 it was completed development of a method of diagnosis of salmonellosis in humans. In 1899 there was the first known outbreak of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella - infection began to spread among South Africa were in the British soldiers. Then, 13,000 soldiers died due to salmonellosis, and 8,000 were killed during the fighting. The first vaccine was developed in the USA; it began introducing the American soldiers in the early 20th century.

Famous bearer typhi (the causative agent is the bacterium Salmonella typhi) began at the time of Mary Mallon, more commonly known as Typhoid Mary - the cook, because of which in 1906-1907 in the US there have been several outbreaks of typhoid fever. While such a thing as a carrier of the disease was unknown, but Mary forbidden to work in catering, and sent to the quarantine. Two years later, she was released from a lifetime ban on working in the field of catering. Despite this, she changed her name again began to work as a cook, and, in the end, caused a new outbreak of typhoid, which led to the deaths of a few. Her re-sent to the quarantine, where she lived for more than twenty years, until his death.

Salmonella has also been used by terrorists as weapons. In 1984, products that are used in salads in several areas catering Oregon, had been deliberately contaminated with Salmonella.

 Salmonella food poisoning - a danger which can be prevented

Symptoms of Salmonella food poisoning

The most common symptoms of gastroenteritis caused by salmonella include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea .  Sometimes there abdominal cramping; the possible presence of blood in feces .  Symptoms usually appear within 48 hours after getting bacteria in the gut .  When such symptoms occur at a group of people who had access to a single source of food or water, you are more likely to assume that we are talking about food poisoning .  Although it usually takes place in a gentle manner, vomiting and diarrhea may lead to dehydration and even death .  Even in the United States Salmonella food poisoning causes about 500 deaths per year; in the less prosperous countries, the figure can be much higher .  The incidence of salmonella is especially high in countries where widespread problems such as lack of clean drinking water and poor sanitation .  Similar to the symptoms of gastroenteritis can cause microorganisms such as Shigella, Staphylococcus, Campylobacter, and some other bacteria and viruses .

Typhoid fever occurs when Salmonella after penetration into the gastrointestinal tract is not destroyed by the human immune system. They begin to proliferate in the spleen, liver and other organs, and can penetrate into the bloodstream (bacteremia). In rare cases, patients did not raise any symptoms, but symptoms usually occur within 21 days after infection. Salmonella can get from the liver to the gallbladder, where it will continue to live and multiply; in this case, the bacteria will be released together with human faeces for long periods - up to a year or more. The main symptoms of typhoid fever are high body temperature (up to 40C), increased sweating, inflammation of the stomach and intestine, and diarrhea. Symptoms usually pass with time, but some patients (about 3% of all patients) become carriers of salmonella.

Approximately half of patients with typhoid is slowing heart rate (bradycardia), and about 30% of patients in the chest and abdomen appear reddish or pinkish spots.

Symptoms of paratyphoid are similar to the symptoms of typhoid fever, but usually they are less intense, and speeding.

 Salmonella food poisoning - a danger which can be prevented

As Salmonella is transmitted to humans

Salmonella is ubiquitous and can infect almost all kinds of food, but numerous cases of food poisoning have been linked to products such as raw eggs, raw meat, fresh vegetables, cereals, pistachios, tomatoes, and contaminated water. One of the recent outbreaks of food poisoning occurred in the summer of 2010, when several American manufacturers began to supply eggs contaminated with salmonella. Manufacturers were forced to withdraw their products (more than 500 million eggs). Another outbreak has been linked to contaminated bacteria tuna comes from India; it was used for sushi, sashimi, ceviche and other dishes.

Infection can occur through contact with animal faeces, or human with food during harvest or production. The sources of Salmonella may be pets - cats, dogs, turtles, and the majority of farm animals as well as people. Some people and animals can be carriers of salmonella - they are like Typhoid Mary, do not get sick themselves, but can infect others.

Varieties of Salmonella that cause typhoid and paratyphoid fevers, most often spread through the feces of a person when they are immersed in water or food.

 Salmonella food poisoning - a danger which can be prevented

Risk factors

The main risk factor for infection with Salmonella is the use of dirty food or water that contains feces - just a very small amount of the bacteria entered the body. Infection is also possible by eating some foods raw (eggs, meat or fish). When visiting third world countries is not recommended to drink tap water, and use it for brushing your teeth - it will help to significantly reduce the risk of infection (ice from contaminated water is also not safe - Salmonella safely survive at low temperatures, so drinks with ice in the unknown to you public catering also better to avoid). Finally, we must bear in mind that people with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to other salmonella food poisoning.

 Salmonella food poisoning - a danger which can be prevented

How Salmonella causes disease in humans

It is believed that the development of infection in the human body needs to get from one million to one billion bacteria; However, some scientists believe that is enough to infect a much smaller number of bacteria. Whatever it was, most of the available evidence suggests that contaminated food and water, salmonella in very large quantities - enough to develop the disease. Although gastric juice can destroy part penetrating into the digestive tract of bacteria (and sometimes - all of them) typically some bacteria still penetrate into the intestine, they are attached to the cells constituting its shell and penetrate into them. Salmonella produced toxins (enterotoxin and cytotoxin) can damage and destroy the cells that become the direct cause of diarrhea.

Some species of Salmonella can survive in the cells of the immune system, and into the bloodstream, causing a blood infection (bacteraemia). Other types of Salmonella can invade the gallbladder, making a person a permanent carrier of the bacteria. In this case, salmonella to be present in human feces, making them potentially dangerous for healthy people.