Hepatitis A - do not forget to wash your hands! - Signs

April 1, 2014

  • Hepatitis A - do not forget to wash your hands!
  • Signs
  • Treatment

 symptoms of hepatitis A

Symptoms of hepatitis A

In the course of hepatitis A can be divided into four periods: incubation, preicteric, jaundice and a convalescence period. The incubation period of hepatitis A virus is from one to two to six to seven weeks, the average - month. At this time in the body is an active virus multiplication and after the number reaches a critical level, the typical symptoms of the disease appear. The incubation period for hepatitis A lasts the more, the stronger immune system sick.

Prodromal (preicteric period or precursors) period lasts one - two weeks, sometimes less. At this time, there are common symptoms, which are easily confused with any other infection. Starts disease is more acute, with fever, chills, headaches, pain in joints and muscles. Sometimes there is pain in the abdomen indefinite nature and various digestive disorders (flatulence, constipation, diarrhea, and so on). Almost all patients develop severe weakness and irritability Irritability - you try to control my temper  Irritability - you try to control my temper

The blood in this period can be found elevated liver enzymes (ALT, AST), which are released into the blood from the cells destroyed by viruses. By the end of the prodromal period is found in the blood increased bilirubin (mainly direct).

Symptoms of hepatitis A in the icteric period - is increasing yellowness sclera and skin, dark urine, discolored feces, significant itching and pain or a feeling of heaviness in the right hypochondrium. This phase of the disease lasts no more than one month, an average of 7 - 10 days. The liver is increased in this period, painful, and sometimes enlarged spleen. Almost always, you can touch and enlarged lymph nodes Lymph nodes - what keeps our immune system  Lymph nodes - what keeps our immune system
 . He suffers from the pancreas: it decreases the secretion of digestive juices and insulin. Often during this period, patients are irritable, they develop depression. Characterized by mood swings from depression Depression - a little more than a bad mood  Depression - a little more than a bad mood
   and drowsiness to the excitement.

In general, analysis of the blood of patients in the icteric period can see a decrease in the total number of leukocytes and the relative increase in the content of one of their parts - lymphocytes, which is a sign of viral infection. At the same time reduces the number of platelets in the blood, it leads to a violation of its clotting and a tendency to bleed. In the biochemical analysis of blood revealed the increase of bilirubin (mostly direct), elevated liver enzymes, a slight decrease in the protein content in blood serum and Dysproteinemia - a violation of the relation between the individual protein fractions (decrease of albumin and increase - gammaglobulins).

The period of convalescence all symptoms regress: restores appetite decreases and then disappears yellowness of the skin and sclera, reduced the size of the liver and gradually restored blood biochemistry. The length of this period - from one week to two, but may be more.

Current hepatitis A virus can be mild, moderate and severe, including massive hepatic necrosis and life threatening mole. Symptoms of hepatitis A can be very different, including sometimes completely absent jaundice (anicteric forms of hepatitis), sometimes hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time  Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
   It takes place under the guise of acute respiratory viral infection, appendicitis, and so on.

Lightning (fulminant) hepatitis A form pose a threat to the patient's life. They are characterized by a rapid increase in toxicity and all symptoms of hepatitis amid heavy changes in the liver up to its extensive areas of necrosis.


Symptoms of hepatitis A in children

Hepatitis A is widespread among children, while more common in younger children. Less sick infants, however, it is possible development of the disease at any age including in neonates (children more often up to a year hepatitis B).

Viral hepatitis A in older children the same symptoms as adults. However, there are some features. For example, children often marked by acute onset of the disease with a short-term (within two to three days), the temperature increase to high numbers, and the frequent presence of catarrhal symptoms as sore throat and runny nose. Preicteric period of the disease they are shorter than adults. Joint pain in children predzheltushnogo period are rare. Jaundice is growing faster than in adults, but is rarely itchy skin.

Hepatitis A in children in severe disease characterized by rapid, short predzheltushnogo period and severe intoxication. The liver is increased to a considerable size, dramatically increases the intensity of jaundice, blood biochemistry rise to high numbers.

Hepatitis A - do not forget to wash your hands! - Treatment

April 1, 2014

  • Hepatitis A - do not forget to wash your hands!
  • Signs
  • Treatment

 Treatment of hepatitis A

Treatment of hepatitis A

Treatment of hepatitis A is aimed at ensuring peace and the maximum discharge of the liver from the effects of any disturbing factors. To do this, the patient is assigned to bed rest, diet (table number 5 A), excessive drinking or administration of intravenous drip of pharmaceutical solutions (they contribute to the removal from the body of viruses, their toxins and toxic products improper metabolism), vitamins and hepatoprotectors (drugs, positive influence liver function) and symptomatic treatment that eliminates the unpleasant symptoms of the disease.

Diet for Hepatitis A is one of the treatments. Table number 5 A (chemically and mechanically gentle food) shall be appointed on the acute process. From the diet excludes all sharp, salty, canned, smoked, fried foods, sweets, fatty meat, fish and dairy products. All meals are prepared by steaming or by boiling and then crushed - so reached the maximum sparing of digestive organs. Receiving food must be small portions of up to 6 times per day.

The period of convalescence at a moderate course of the disease can go on the table number 5 - it is different from the table number 5A only because the food is not crushed. Diet after Hepatitis A - is also a table number 5, which eventually expanded and there is a gradual transition to a healthy diet.

Been ill with hepatitis A should be under medical supervision by a doctor, an infectious disease specialist at the place of residence or treatment. The first visual inspection is carried out not later than one month after discharge from hospital. In the following observation periods and the amount of required examinations determined by the doctor.


Prevention of hepatitis A

If any patient with hepatitis A in any group (primarily in children and in the collective military) quarantine. Quarantine for hepatitis A is imposed for a period of 35 days after the last patient isolation. For children (soldiers) who had contact with the patient, establish the daily medical surveillance for quarantine. Groups of children or military personnel are subject to the maximum isolation from the other groups at all time of quarantine.

Of equal importance is the disinfection of hepatitis A .  In identifying the disease in organized groups after the isolation of the patient's final disinfection is carried out, the scope and content of which depend on the characteristics of the hearth .  Disinfection measures are carried out by employees of organizations disinfection profile within the boundaries of the hearth, experts determined the bodies authorized to exercise state sanitary and epidemiological supervision .  Subsequently, current disinfection carried out by the staff of the organization, which revealed a case of hepatitis A .  Responsibility for organizing and carrying out the disinfection shall be the head of the institution .  The final disinfection is carried out by experts organization disinfection profile in preschool institutions in each case, and in schools and other institutions - in repeated cases .  For the final and current disinfection use duly registered disinfectants that are effective against viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis - Army disease  Viral hepatitis - Army disease

If an outbreak of hepatitis A to the use of poor-quality drinking water as a result of accidents on the water or sewer networks in settlements carried out emergency repairs to their subsequent disinfection and washing. When an outbreak of hepatitis A in the use of infected products held detection and removal of food, served as the probable cause of the disease, as well as the elimination of the violations.


The vaccine against hepatitis A

Currently available range of effective vaccines to prevent hepatitis A. It Havrix 1440 Havrix 720 adults and children (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), AWACS (Sanofi Pasteur, France), GEO-A-in-HAC (ZAO "Vector -BiAlgam" Russian), Waqt (Merck Sharp & Dohme Idea, Inc., USA).

All these vaccines are purified sterile suspension containing inactivated virus of hepatitis A. In the single administration of most vaccines against hepatitis A vaccine to protect against hepatitis A is provided for the year. If you make a second injection of 6-12 months, the person will be protected from infection to 20 years. If the second dose was administered for 6-12 months after the initial dose, the appointment of an additional dose can be delayed up to 5 years.

Vaccination against hepatitis A for children is not included in the national calendar of compulsory vaccinations, it is made in the same way as adults only at increased risk of illness or at the request of parents.

Vaccination shall be persons who are or will be at risk of contracting hepatitis A.

Viral hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time  Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
   A requires the timely detection, isolation and treatment of the patient, as well as all the necessary epidemiological measures in the foci of the disease.

Galina Romanenko

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