Speculum - it is one of the most important diagnostic tools in the office of an obstetrician-gynecologist. Gynecological mirrors may have a different shape and diameter, and in accordance with the same and different purpose. With the speculum can be done a variety of diagnostic tests.
What are the gynecological mirrors
Gynecological mirrors needed for the inspection of the vagina and cervix. At the same gynecologist left hand pushes the large and small labia, widely exposing the vagina, and then enters the rear mirror according to the direction of the vagina (the top front - backwards down) and then the front.
Only mirrors having spoon-shape, give the opportunity to thoroughly inspect all the walls of the vagina and cervix.
Pulling the front and rear mirror in different directions and moving them, examine the mucosa (color, folded, grain, breaks, growths, scarring, redness, swelling,
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, Various types of discharge), find out the size and shape of the vaginal part of the cervix, the opening shape of the uterus (external os), the presence of fractures, erosion, discharge from the cervical canal. This can be detected precancerous lesions and early stage cervical cancer
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Gynecological mirrors may be of different shape and diameter (numbers 1-6), depending on the size and capacity of the female pelvis vagina. In the study of vaginal spoon-shaped mirror Sims pulled back wall of the vagina, under the front introduced the so-called lift.
Simon fluted mirrors consist of two spoons with handles: one spoon fluted (rear) for pulling the posterior vaginal wall, the other - flat (front mirror, lift) is injected under the front wall of the vagina. Mirrors manufactured in various widths according to have the numbers 2 and 3.
Speculum Ott-lift characterized in that the spoon-shaped part (number of different diameters of 1 to number 4) and the flat plate (lift) fixed to the gutter in the pen by a screw.
The divided mirror Cusco eliminates the need to use the lift and release the doctor's hands for the production of vaginal manipulation (taking secretions from the cervix, etc.), as both wing mirrors after their introduction in the vagina can be fiksirovny special spacer in position. Depending on the width of the flaps folding mirrors have a size of from 1 to 3.
If necessary, open wide the vagina (for example, vaginal cesarean section, vaginal hysterectomy) using wide flat mirror Doyen. Depending on the width of spoons these mirrors are numbered from 1 to 5.
If you want to more closely examine the mucosa of the cervix and vagina (for example, to distinguish the true from the pseudo-erosion), the use of special optical equipment - colposcope, which allows you to see all the changes in this area.
Children gynecological mirrors
To study the girls and young women are offered a special children's gynecological mirrors, with which you can carry out inspection (especially under anesthesia), while minimally damaging the hymen and vagina. For older girls (12 and older) mirrors have the same width throughout the working part, for young girls mirror narrowed from the working end of the handle. Available in flat, and special children's gynecological lifts.
For a more detailed examination of the vaginal part of the cervix and vaginal walls, and for therapeutic manipulation in girls used fluted vaginal gynecological mirror with removable lighters, included in a special set. The mirror has the shape of the trough in which the two spring clamps fixed tube fixture, the contour of the curved mirror. Inside the tube is placed the power cord, ending at the mirror of the working of the bulb. The lamp is covered by a cap made of organic glass to protect the field from the examination of possible injuries at its destruction. The set includes: a mirror with removable illuminators (numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4), a step-down transformer 12 replacement bulbs and 5 caps.
If necessary, more detailed inspection of the state of the vaginal part of the cervix and vaginal walls in girls and women used a special optical device - Vaginoscopy that allows you to accurately determine the nature of changes in the mucous membrane of these organs.
Speculum - it is one of the earliest of gynecological instruments, however, and today without it can not do any gynecological office in antenatal or obstetric hospital.
- gynecological examination