- Causes of recurrent miscarriage - health problems
- Immune and hormonal disorders
Habitual miscarriage has several currently known factors. Some are treatable, others - no. The success of the treatment of certain disorders that lead to recurrent miscarriage, depends on the general health of the patient, in particular, on the presence of other diseases it. Furthermore, it should be borne in mind that in some cases, to find out the causes of recurrent miscarriage is not possible even after complex diagnostic procedures.
Problems with the uterus and cervix
There are a number of violations related to the uterus and cervix, which often become a cause of recurrent miscarriage. Among them:
Congenital anomalies in the structure of the uterus. For example, in the uterus can be a partition, which often leads to miscarriages and other violations in the development of pregnancy; to remove it require surgery.
Uterine fibroids. Fibroids - benign tumors in the muscle tissue of the uterus, which reached a large enough size, can cause recurrent miscarriages.
Cervical incompetence - a disorder in which the cervix is unable to cope with the strong intrauterine pressure and begins to open too early, usually in the middle of pregnancy. Cervical incompetence is not considered to be possible causes of spontaneous abortion during the first trimester.
Thrombophilia is a condition in which the likelihood of blood clots is increased. The fact that the blood during pregnancy in women becomes thicker, has been known for quite some time, but only recently it has been found that some women this change is more pronounced than others. Thrombophilia may be congenital or acquired. Antiphospholipid antibodies, the most important of which are the lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies, greatly facilitate the formation of blood clots. Women with recurrent pregnancy loss
Habitual miscarriage - can and should be treated
assays can be assigned to these antibodies - they are needed to identify such violation as antiphospholipid syndrome
Antiphospholipid syndrome - a dangerous autoimmune reactions
If blood clots form in the blood vessels of the placenta, blood flow to the developing fetus are limited and this will result in a miscarriage
Miscarriage - can you protect yourself from it?
in the second trimester of pregnancy, or to low birth weight, and possibly to other problems. In addition, women with thrombophilia have a risk of a significant increase in blood pressure in late pregnancy.
For quite some time it was thought that the more dense than usual, blood in pregnant women can cause miscarriage in the first trimester because of blood clots in the placenta, causing the embryo can not get enough oxygen. Today we know that in the first trimester of the blood does not flow to the fetus through the placenta - the blood vessels at this time has developed, but they are present only as long as the cells of the placenta. In addition, the results of experience with the embryo during in vitro fertilization suggest that oxygen is toxic to the embryo in the early stages of development, so the direct blood flow would be dangerous for them. Currently available scientific evidence suggests that antiphospholipid antibodies
Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity
in patients with acquired thrombophilia, and special proteins in congenital thrombophilia interfere with the normal development of the placenta. This leads to disruption of embryo development and consequently to miscarriage. If untreated, the patient cases of repeated miscarriages - a condition called recurrent pregnancy loss.
Chromosomes - the structures that are known to be carriers of hereditary information. This information determines the characteristics of a person such as sex, blood, hair and eye color, and much, much more. Too much or too little leads to an imbalance of chromosomes and disruption of the development of the whole organism. Sometimes miscarriages occur precisely due to the fact that an abnormal number of chromosomes of the fetus. In most cases, none of the parents do not have extra or missing chromosomes - anomalies appear in maturing oocytes, or (more rarely) in spermatozoa. This happens by accident, as a rule, perfectly healthy parents. Usually a woman for such a reason miscarriage occurs only once, and the likelihood that this will happen again during the next pregnancy is very small. However, there is one important exception - a balanced translocation.
A person with a balanced translocation is normal number of chromosomes, and there are no signs of genetic disorders. However chromosome had incorrectly positioned, and this can cause problems when they begin to share - what happens, for example, in the formation of sperm and ova.
If you suspect a balanced translocation is necessary to conduct a survey of both potential parents; as it should be done, and analysis of the product of conception - if possible to collect material for proper analysis after a miscarriage. If the diagnosis is confirmed, doctors may suggest a few options. Firstly, when a balanced translocation there is a 50% chance that the embryo will not be chromosomal abnormalities - the next pregnancy can develop normally, and the completed birth of a healthy baby. That is, the couple may simply try to conceive again, and if the pregnancy, doctors will closely monitor its development to identify potential violations. Since the probability of having a healthy baby is approximately equal to the probability that happen again miscarriage, many couples try again to conceive without medical intervention.
However, there is an alternative - pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Couples choosing to have PGD, are in the process of in vitro fertilization. Before implanting the embryo mothers, doctors perform its genetic analysis, thus preventing subsequent miscarriage as a result of chromosomal abnormalities.