Ultrasound uterus and appendages obstetricians is prescribed for accurate diagnosis and determine the duration of pregnancy, as well as for suspected diseases such as cysts, tumors of the uterus, endometriosis, uterus and its appendages, and others. Menstrual irregularities, infertility are also indications for ultrasound.
Types of ultrasound of the uterus and appendages
Ultrasound - ultrasound is used to detect pathological changes in individual organs and systems using remote ultrasonic methods. The method is based on the principle of echolocation - the emission of ultrasonic probing and receiving signals reflected from the surface of the section of tissue media with different acoustic properties.
To investigate the uterus and its appendages used transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound.
Transabdominalnooe ultrasound of the uterus and appendages requires filling the bladder. It's enough to drink 4-5 glasses of boiled water at room temperature and wait for about 40-60 minutes. The sensor with the slides on the front surface of the abdomen.
Ultrasound uterus and appendages transvaginally carried out with an empty bladder, so it is made after transabdominal and after the woman to help. A study carried out by special vaginal probe, which is inserted into the vagina.
For ultrasound of the uterus and appendages it has a value and the phase of the menstrual cycle.
The most suitable time for study is considered the first 7-10 days of the menstrual cycle (the first day of the menstrual cycle
The days of the menstrual cycle: Four phases
- This is the first day of menstruation). At various pathologies are sometimes required to conduct several studies for one menstrual cycle. In this case, a second study carried out for 14-16 days, and the third - 22-24 days.
To investigate uterine wall ultrasound is best done at the beginning of the menstrual cycle, since at this time the mucosa (endometrium) is sufficiently thin and does not hide the defects.
Ultrasound uterus and appendages - the norm
Normally, the uterus is pear-shaped in the longitudinal scans and ovoidnuyu - on the cross. It is located in the center of the pelvis. The dimensions of the body of the uterus in women of fertile (childbearing age) on average are: length - 52 mm thickness - 38 mm, width - 51 mm. The length of the uterus is 20-35 mm. The structure of the walls of the uterus uniform thickness and structure endometrial undergo significant changes during the menstrual cycle.
The ovaries are located in the periphery of the lower projection of the front surface of the stomach, have an oval shape, the average echogenicity approximate dimensions 30 × 25 × 15 mm and characteristic structureless inclusion representing follicles. During the menstrual cycle ovarian appearance can be varied by in the first phase of maturation of multiple follicles cycle, then selection of the dominant follicle and ovulation
Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?
followed by the formation on the ground burst follicle corpus luteum.
In the second phase of the menstrual cycle ovarian follicular cysts can occur which usually disappear by the end of the cycle.
Ultrasound uterus and appendages - pathology
Holding ultrasound of the uterus and appendages may reveal different volumetric education.
For example, cysts look like round or oval-shaped structures with a smooth surface that does not give echo. Endometrial polyps (growths of the mucous membrane of the uterus) can be seen on ultrasound in small irregular growths and thickening of the endometrium.
Tumors, especially small size, provide images of various acoustic density of round or oval in shape, but with uneven contours. For large size of the tumor (eg, for uterine) there is an increase in the sonogram and the deformation of the wall of the uterus. Uterine cancer manifests itself in the US in the form of a tumor with irregular edges (it is difficult to distinguish from fibroids).
Endometriosis - a serious problem with serious consequences
in the wall of the uterus can be seen sections of irregular shapes - cavity, foci of necrosis or hemorrhage. However, ultrasound of the uterus is not an accurate method of diagnosing endometriosis.
In the US, you can see the anomalies of the uterus - hypoplasia
Hypoplasia - a congenital malformation of the fetus
(hypoplasia), two-horned double, saddle-shaped uterus.
On examination of the ovaries can detect ovarian cysts, polycystic ovary syndrome, and benign and malignant tumors. In the study of the fallopian tubes can see their thickening characteristic of long flowing inflammatory process, as well as tumors. During the research point location, the size and structure of the tumor.
Ultrasound uterus and appendages, or suspect reveals a large amount of obstetric and gynecological pathology. Based on the conclusion of ultrasound, the doctor will develop a plan for further examination of the woman.