The menstrual cycle - a mechanism that ensures the normal functioning of the body of women of childbearing age. On how to properly operate the menstrual cycle, it depends not only on the ability to have a child, but also the general condition of the woman, her performance and mood.
How "works" menstrual cycle
Proper functioning of the menstrual cycle allow the central nervous system and a number of hormones. In the first place - is sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone), which are produced by the ovaries. The direct connection of the number of sex hormones produced by gonadotropic hormones of the pituitary gland (the main endocrine glands, which "team" the rest of the glands and stimulate or slow down their work) if female hormones produced by small, the increased production of pituitary hormones that stimulate their production, and vice versa.
The pituitary gland produces three HCG affecting the menstrual cycle: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH - stimulates egg maturation in the ovaries in the first half of the menstrual cycle), luteinizing (LH - stimulates the release of an egg from the ovary and production of the female sex hormone progesterone
Progesterone - norm and pathology
in the second half of pregnancy) and Prolactin - stimulates the production of breast milk after birth.
In turn, the pituitary gland is under the influence of the central nervous system, which is called the hypothalamus and adjusts the work of the endocrine system. The hypothalamus produces hormones, stimulating and inhibiting the production of pituitary gonadotropins. But the most important "team" is the cerebral cortex.
Why strays menstrual cycle
The causes of menstrual disorders are severe infectious diseases, malnutrition, lack of dietary vitamins and minerals, various intoxications (smoking, alcohol, drugs, industrial hazards), severe cardiovascular diseases, diseases of the blood, liver and kidneys.
Menstrual disorders of the central (cortico-hypothalamic) origin can arise from trauma, nervous strain, bruises and concussion of the brain. Disorders of the menstrual cycle are also the manifestation of various endocrine diseases (diabetes, disorders of the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands), diseases of the pituitary gland (eg, tumors).
Finally, the cause of menstrual disorders may be inflammatory diseases of the uterus and its appendages, as well as damage to the uterus associated with intrauterine manipulations.
Types of disorders of the menstrual cycle
Depending on the level at which violated the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the following types of its disorders: cortico-hypothalamic, pituitary, ovarian, uterine, associated with thyroid disease and diseases of the adrenal glands.
When menstrual disorders of central origin arising, for example, after stress
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Primarily suffers cyclic pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion, causing oocyte matures, but not released from the ovary (ovulation does not occur).
With the defeat hypothalamic disorders of ovarian function may have a different character. Violation release of pituitary gonadotropins leads to the fact that in the ovaries decreases estrogen production ceases and the maturation of oocytes. Primary ovarian failure may be different from the functional failure to fibrosis (proliferation of connective tissue in the ovary tissue instead of ovaries) and a sharp decrease in the number of follicles, ready to mature during the menstrual cycle (as we know, these follicles are laid in utero).
How manifest failures of the menstrual cycle
Menstrual disorder manifested in two basic forms - amenorrhea
The absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) - ambiguous symptom
(absence of menstruation), and dysfunctional uterine bleeding (outside menses).
Besides the lack of menstruation, menstrual disorder is characterized by changes in the intensity and rhythm of menstruation - decrease or increase the intervals between them, increasing the intensity of bleeding, erratic character of menstruation, uterine bleeding appearance.
The following are typical symptoms:
- changes in the amount of blood released during menstruation: heavy (menorrhagia) or scanty (gipomenoreya) menstruation and scanty and short (opsooligomenoreya) menstruation;
- violation of the duration of menstruation: prolonged (more than 6-7 days - polimenoreya) or short (1-2 days - oligomenorrhea) menstruation;
- dysrhythmia: frequent (more than 21 days - proymenoreya) and rare (less than 35 days, and sometimes up to 3 months - opsomenoreya).
Gipomenoreya often combined with oligomenorrhea
Oligomenorrhea - too short menstruation
and opsomenoreey - this is called hypomenstrual syndrome. The reason for it is to reduce the function of the pituitary gland and the ovaries (including sclerotic ovaries).
Menorrhagia called menstruation, characterized by significant blood loss, up to 12 days. Menorrhagia often seen in adolescence and menopause, as well as on the background of chronic wasting disease (chronic inflammatory diseases of the uterus, fibroids and polyps of the uterus). Dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea) - a disorder of menstruation and complications, which are accompanied by pain.
In all disorders of the menstrual cycle is necessary to identify their causes and appropriate treatment. Therefore, when such violations should be treated as early as possible to the gynecologist.