Violation of the menstrual cycle is considered one of the most common gynecological pathologies. Reasons cycle disorders are varied and numerous. Failure of the menstrual cycle can be caused by both external factors (climate change, harmful working conditions) and internal (diseases of the female reproductive organs, infections, chronic systemic diseases). Not least in the development of menstrual disorders are receiving hormones. Typically, hormonal contraceptive drugs are prescribed with the aim of, and one of the side effects of receiving a menstrual cycle. That is why many women refuse to use hormonal contraceptives.
The normal menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle is a complex physiological process which is characterized by cyclic changes occurring in the body, towards its oocyte maturation and fertilization (i.e., preparation for pregnancy). If fertilization has occurred, the menstrual cycle ends uterine bleeding - menstruation. Duration of the menstrual cycle of 21-35 days, and last menstruation themselves from three to seven days. All deviations from normal menstrual cycle indicators are evidence of its abuse.
Classification of hormonal contraceptive products
There are three groups of hormonal contraceptives:
- Combined oral contraceptives
The structure of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) contains estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) and progestin (desogestrel or norgestrel) components. Depending on the quantity of hormones secrete monophasic, two- and three-phase hormones. For example: Mikroginon, Novinet, Regulon. Accepted KOC within 21 days, after which the seven-day break should be done (this time will menstrualnopodobnoe bleeding).
- Formulations containing only the gestagen
For this group of contraceptives are pills minipill (Ekslyuton, Mikronor, Denovis) and sustained release formulations (Depo-Provera). Mini-pill taken continuously, without interruption, and the long-acting drugs are produced by injection to be repeated every three months.
- Means for emergency contraception
Drugs in this group are used only in case of emergency (unprotected sexual intercourse). These include Postinor and eskapel.
Often, while taking hormonal contraceptives, such as the combined oral drugs (Rigevidon, Mersilon, Marvelon and others) there are painful menstruation. The cause of algomenoree
Algomenoreya - with age and can not pass
It is the wrong location of the uterus (uterine bend backwards), adhesions in the pelvis
Adhesions in the pelvis: Symptoms and Treatment
or the presence of internal endometriosis. In addition, pain during menstruation can occur due to improperly matched hormonal preparation (too large doses of hormones).
Very often women complain about the appearance of intermenstrual bleeding while taking hormone preparations. Such bleeding occur after the COC and is considered normal during the first three months of pill use, and after the injection of long-acting progestin drugs (Depo-Provera). If intermenstrual bleeding
Intermenstrual bleeding - a cause for concern
emerged in patients receiving HEC, it indicates the "addiction" of the body to hormones. If bleeding continues for more than three months, you should see a doctor, so a high probability of improper selection of pills.
The absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) often occurs in patients receiving gestagensoderzhaschih drugs, especially with prolonged action. The cause of amenorrhea
The absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) - ambiguous symptom
associated with a decrease in the surface of the functional layer of the endometrium due to prolonged use of progestogens.
Heavy menstruation (giperpolimenoreya) usually occur in patients receiving HEC. The cause of giperpolimenorei associated with incorrectly chosen drug (too high a dose of hormones).
At irregular menstruation cycle varies. This is due to improper intake of pills and the woman's desire to shorten, lengthen the menstrual cycle.
Massive bleeding occurs while taking hormone pills for emergency contraception. The emergence of heavy bleeding due to a very high dose of progestogens, which contain pills for contraception fire. This situation requires immediate treatment to the doctor.