Glue ear in its development goes through several stages. Each of them is accompanied by certain features. After confirmation of the diagnosis being treated, which can be both conservative and surgical.
Glue ear - an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of Eustachian tube and the tympanic cavity. Such a state is generated when the auditory tube ceases to perform its function of ventilation in full.
The cause of the disease can be transferred respiratory viral infection. Irrational use of antibiotics
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Which themselves may in some cases create a favorable environment for the reproduction of microorganisms resistant to them. The development of the disease also influence inflammatory and allergic processes in the upper respiratory tract and disorders of the immune system
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Forms and stages of the disease
- Glue ear for the duration of the flow is divided into three forms. The disease can be:
- Acute (up to three weeks);
- Subacute (three to eight weeks);
- Chronic (for more than eight weeks).
Depending on the changes that occur in the middle ear, there are several stages of otitis media. It:
- Bluetongue. The mucous membrane of Eustachian tube becomes inflamed and ventilation function of the latter is broken. Admission of air in the middle ear is reduced or ceases completely. The mucosa continues to suck in air, which leads to the formation of a vacuum in the tympanic cavity. There is accumulated liquid and leukocytes
White blood cells as the basis of immunity
in a small amount migrates to the middle ear. The duration of this step reaches one month;
- Secretory. During this period, the mucous membrane of the middle ear increases the number of secretory cells. In the tympanum accumulated mucus. The duration is from one month to one year;
- Mucosal. The contents of the tympanum becomes viscous and thick. This stage develops from one to two years;
- The fibrous. Mucus production is reduced, and the mucous membrane of the tympanic cavity is replaced by connective tissue, there is a scar process.
The symptoms of glue ear
In the first stage of exudative otitis person notices that his hearing worsened slightly. There is easy syringmus (a condition where your own voice gives to the affected ear).
In the secretory stage, there is noise, a feeling of pressure and fullness in the ear. Hearing impairment worse. Sometimes when you change the position of the head man notes feeling transfusion fluid, thus improving hearing. In the third and fourth stages of hearing loss continue to grow.
The pathological process may be unilateral, but in many cases develop bilateral otitis media with effusion.
Diagnosis of exudative otitis
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It is not always timely. This is due to the fact that the disease is malosimptomno, pain are not expressed and not feel disturbed. For a small hearing loss, which slowly grows, the patient usually gets used.
In order to make a diagnosis, the doctor need to find out the complaints and human history of the disease (ie, how to develop a pathology). Then the specialist conducts the survey.
The doctor performs otoscopy - examination of the external ear canal and eardrum using special tools. Also used tympanometry (the method in which the investigating pressure in the middle ear, the state of the auditory tube and the degree of ossicular conduction and mobility of the tympanic membrane). If any of the Eustachian tube is determined by the negative pressure in the middle ear. In order to assess the degree of hearing loss, audiometry carried out.
Treatment of exudative otitis
Treatment of patients is aimed at eliminating the causes that caused the change in the function of the eustachian tube. Then, measures are being taken to restore hearing and prevention of persistent changes in the middle ear. If the Eustachian tube patency arose because of diseases of the nose, sinuses or throat, it is primarily treated with this pathology.
Apply the eustachian tube blowing, and physical therapy (in-the-electrophoresis with corticosteroids and proteolytic enzymes). The doctor may prescribe antibiotics (protected penicillins, macrolides).
In the nose, you can bury vasoconstrictor drugs, but their use should be short-lived. If otitis media developed against the backdrop of an allergy, then use antihistamines. Also appoint fortifying agents, vitamins, and immunomodulators.
If after one or two weeks of hearing does not improve, and restore the function of Eustachian tube does not occur, surgical treatment. Most often used bypass the tympanic cavity.
To do this, perform paracentesis (artificial perforation) of the eardrum and the resulting incision is administered through a shunt (tube) of special materials. The shunt administered drugs into the tympanic cavity and its contents removed. In some cases, perform percutaneous bypass. In this form the tunnel wall in the region of low back under the skin of the auditory meatus.
In some patients, and this treatment does not lead to recovery. This may be due to the fact that inflammation is not limited to the tympanic cavity, and moved to a mastoid temporal bone. In this case, reveal pneumatic cells mastoid.
Not recommended for the treatment of exudative otitis folk remedies. This can lead to complications and deterioration of the person.
Treatment of exudative otitis media should be performed only by a physician after a complex diagnostic procedures. The choice of method depends on the characteristics of the disease, the reasons that caused it, and the patient's condition. In some cases, the conservative treatment is carried out only, and other - require surgery.