Amitriptyline - one of the first antidepressants, it relates to drugs with significant side effects. However, amitriptyline, and today is the most widely used in emotional disorders, anxiety-depressive character.
Why amitriptyline has many side effects
Aminotriptilin - a group of tricyclic antidepressant compounds. Its mechanism of action is based on the fact that it prevents re-entrainment of some neurotransmitters (substances that transmit nerve impulses in neurons), whose number in the brain increases. These include neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin. The main action and some of the side effects associated with an excess of these neurotransmitters. The action of the neurotransmitter atsitelholina amitriptyline blocks and most of the side effects associated with this.
In order to reduce the side effects to a minimum amitritilina, for administration of the drug is necessary to consider all the features of the mechanism of its action and its associated contraindications for receiving the drug. Therefore, amitriptyline appoint a doctor and refers to drug prescription at the pharmacy.
Adverse effects of amitriptyline associated with the suppression action of acetylcholine
Acetylcholine - a neurotransmitter that causes a number of physiological effects, its termination (anticholinergic effect) has the opposite effect.
Anticholinergic effects of amitriptyline is most often seen at the beginning of treatment. Over time the body adapts to the drug (it is prescribed long courses for a few weeks) and associated with a deficiency of acetylcholine side effects normally reduced or completely tested. These side effects include, for example, paresis of accommodation of the eye - it ceases to shrink the iris and the pupil does not react to light, while remaining at all times of expansion, because of what the vision becomes blurred, as the eyes after instillation solution of atropine. At the same time may increase intraocular pressure.
From the gastrointestinal tract blocking the action of acetylcholine results in a decrease of saliva secretion and occurrence of dry mouth. Also inhibits motor activity of smooth muscles of the intestines, leading to constipation, in some cases (rarely) passing in bowel obstruction. For the same reason (reduction of motor activity of smooth muscles of the urinary tract) is a delay urination (amitriptyline therefore contraindicated in atony of the bladder). Sometimes the background of amitriptyline increased body temperature - a consequence of the lack of influence of acetylcholine on the temperature center in the brain.
Adverse effects of the central and peripheral nervous system
Amitriptyline - a medication with psychotropic action, ie, has a significant effect on the nervous system, so the part of the central and peripheral nervous system in its admission may appear in a variety of side effects.
These side effects include drowsiness, weakness, fatigue, sleep disturbances
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and sleep (sleep may be accompanied by nightmares), headache, dizziness, tinnitus. Patients may become irritable, increased anxiety
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In some cases, there is a breakdown in the consistency reduction of individual muscles during voluntary movement (ataxia), resulting in significant traffic disruption. Often this is accompanied by motor excitation.
Disturbed coordination of movements and concentration, it is difficult to pronounce certain sounds, syllables and words (dysarthria). Disturbed sensitivity - a feeling of pins and needles in the body. Sometimes there is confusion, disturbed orientation of a person in space, develop hallucinations - patients see, hear and feel what is actually there. There may be convulsions.
Side effects of other organs and systems
Significant side effects may occur on the part of the circulatory system. It attacks palpitations and cardiac arrhythmias, heart block, "jumps" blood pressure, symptoms of heart failure
Heart failure - when the heart is unable to cope with the work
, loss of consciousness.
Gastrointestinal tract can respond to amitriptyline, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, stomach pains, constipation or diarrhea, sometimes alternating. Develop stomatitis, disturbed sense of taste. There may be transient liver function abnormalities.
Sometimes develop hormonal disorders
Hormonal disorders - oversupply and a lack of equally dangerous
in the form of an increase in mammary glands in men and women and the appearance of these secretions, sexual dysfunction, changes in the amount of blood sugar.
The blood may decrease the total number of leukocytes and platelets, which leads to reduced immunity and increased bleeding. At the same time it increased the number of eosinophils, indicating that the body's allergic mood.
There are also hair loss, swollen lymph nodes, weight gain, increased sweating, and allergic reactions.
Amitriptyline - a drug which may produce many side effects.