Genetically modified organisms: it dangerous to artificial interbreeding?

December 20, 2011

 genetically modified organisms
 If you do not understand what genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and this is good or bad, you are not alone. New biological technologies pose new questions facing humanity. Identify useful or harmful GMO difficult because the risk is not fully known.

 Genetically modified organisms: it dangerous to artificial interbreeding?

What are genetically modified organisms (GMOs)?

In the EU, the following definition of GMO - "organism except human genotype which has been artificially modified in a manner which is not possible in vivo."

Changes in gene is introduced into the genetic material of an organism in the laboratory, and not through the crossing. Instead of crossing plants or animals to produce progeny, in a plant, animal or microbe comprise DNA from another organism. Making GMOs - a type of genetic engineering.

GMOs are used in various fields, but most controversy is the use of genetically modified organisms as food.

 Genetically modified organisms: it dangerous to artificial interbreeding?

Arguments in favor of GMOs

Genetic technology helps gather more abundant harvest, use less fertilizer, pesticide, a product with a lot of nutrients.

Traditional breeding - a slow process because it takes generations before the desired result is achieved. GMO technologies allow you to create the desired genotype immediately, in the current generation.

Genetic engineering - the process more predictable than traditional breeding, when thousands of genes passed on to offspring by chance. When creating GMOs changes occur with individual genes or gene blocks.

GMOs are not natural, but you can not say that all useful natural and the artificial - is harmful. Poisonous mushrooms are natural, but extremely harmful. Wash before eating unnatural foods, but it is useful.

Genetically modified foods have appeared on the market in 1996, if they constituted an immediate threat to health, people would have noticed it.

 Genetically modified organisms: it dangerous to artificial interbreeding?

The arguments against GMOs

Studies in rats have shown that GMOs may pose a risk. In the animals that were fed genetically modified soy and corn, are often developed problems with the liver and kidneys. Although the results of the tests on rats not directly transferred to humans, it can be concluded that the GMO may have unexpected effects on animals, both wild and domestic.

GMOs have not been adequately tested. Some tests of GMO were a period of ninety days, which can not be considered sufficient evidence of security for the future of people for years or even generations.

Gene transfer of genetic engineering in more unpredictable than under natural mating. Nature has a defense mechanism - the representatives of different species can not interbreed and produce offspring. But crossed with transgenic technology not only different species, but members of different kingdoms, such as splicing animal genes with genes of microbes or plants. Thus, there are genotypes that are not possible in nature, and it is impossible to predict the consequences.

Genetically modified products contain new proteins which can cause allergic reactions Allergic reactions: how to understand why you tickle in the throat  Allergic reactions: how to understand why you tickle in the throat
   in humans, even in cases where there was no allergy to starting components.

Genetically modified plants and animals can interbreed with natural populations, creating environmental problems, such as too rapid growth of population or species extinction, the imbalance between species in nature and so on.

Even if some GMOs are safe for humans, it does not mean that the security of all GMOs. Each type has its advantages and risks.

The development of GMOs inevitably lead to the development of monocultures that threaten food diversity and food security.

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AIDS vaccine: good news from America

November 20, 2011

 AIDS vaccine
 US scientists have made a breakthrough in the treatment of AIDS AIDS - is still very scary  AIDS - is still very scary
 : At the University of Oregon Health & Science Laboratory conducted the first test of the new vaccine, which in future will become the most effective means of preventing AIDS.

Devoting the development of an AIDS vaccine for almost a decade, the University of Oregon scientists recently conducted the first tests of the new vaccine on monkeys. All test animals were infected with HIV, and some of them the vaccine was introduced. In more than half of the monkeys who received the vaccine, the researchers were unable to detect the virus - even though they knew that the animals were infected. Furthermore - after a certain time in monkeys completely disappeared signs of infection.

Of course, the vaccine offered by American scientists are not able to cure AIDS, but it can stop HIV in its early stages. According to scientists, the vaccine not only suppress the virus and destroy the infected cells. If a person becomes infected with HIV, the vaccine alone fights infection, controlling and neutralizing it - and the person may not even know that was exposed to the virus.

Until the final finished appearance of an AIDS vaccine for people is still quite a lot of time: until the product has been tested only on monkeys, but in order to make the vaccine is safe for humans, scientists will have to make additional changes to the formula. Then the vaccine trials will be conducted on humans have - for a total production of finished vaccine, according to conservative estimates, it will take about eight years.

 AIDS vaccine: good news from America

AIDS vaccine: the principle of operation

Even as a child, most people infected with cytomegalovirus - a so-called cytomegalovirus. Because the virus is present in the human body throughout his life, usually without causing any harm, the University of Oregon researchers have suggested that cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus - what is its danger?  Cytomegalovirus - what is its danger?
   It can be an ideal tool for vaccination against HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

The operating principle of a vaccine is extremely simple and consists in creating a virus with some HIV genes to boost the immune defense against infections. Ability harmless to human cytomegalovirus exist independently in the body makes it an ideal vaccine carrier and, theoretically, can provide lifelong protection against HIV after vaccination. Scientists say that a combination of vaccines and cytomegalovirus ensures a constant activity of the immune system The immune system - how it works?  The immune system - how it works?
   and to neutralize the HIV virus is still weak.

To test the vaccine University of Oregon conducted laboratory tests on rhesus macaques: scientists infected monkeys dvadat four modified cytomegalovirus, and then - SIV, simian immunodeficiency virus, the human equivalent of HIV. In thirteen cases, the vaccine is quickly neutralized the infection, and the twelve test animals full protection from the virus was observed for at least a year. The level of virus activity decreased in these animals to such low levels that it was impossible to detect.

The researchers say that the vaccine developed by University of Oregon, so effectively controls the activity of the virus, which can suppress it almost forever. If researchers can develop a vaccine based on a similar product for humans, humanity may finally learn to effectively prevent AIDS.

 AIDS vaccine: good news from America

Mankind AIDS: Past and Present

Despite decades of research on the way the creators of an effective vaccine against AIDS is still a lot of obstacles. For example, several years ago the pharmaceutical company Merck conducted clinical trials of the vaccine on patients, but in 2007 turned the study after it became clear that the vaccine not only protects people, but, on the contrary, makes them more vulnerable.

The most effective results were obtained in 2009, in the course of the study, in which sixteen thousand volunteers in Thailand were introduced just two vaccines. The results showed that the combination of two drugs reduced the risk of HIV infection by about thirty percent. However, this solution has not received wide acceptance, as well as was not too effective for mass application.

Until now, scientists have not been able to develop a vaccine that would effectively neutralize the virus that can mutate quickly and take many forms. Vaccines directed at one viral species appears to be useless against other species. Using a CMV vaccine as a carrier allows you to, say scientists, to overcome this problem - because the virus is always present in the body and constantly stimulates the immune system, the body effectively suppress infection. Quick response of the immune system can solve the problem with the rapid mutation of HIV.

How effective will such a vaccine to combat the human immunodeficiency virus HIV - can be slow, can not be stopped  HIV - can be slow, can not be stopped
 Time will tell: the clinical tests of the vaccine on rhesus monkeys conducted by American scientists showed that the effect of the vaccine was effective in only half of cases, so in the near future vaccine makers to figure out how to make the drug more effective. In addition, later scientists will need to make sure that the developed vaccine is safe not only for experimental animals, but also for people.

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