US scientists have made a breakthrough in the treatment of AIDS
AIDS - is still very scary
: At the University of Oregon Health & Science Laboratory conducted the first test of the new vaccine, which in future will become the most effective means of preventing AIDS.
Devoting the development of an AIDS vaccine for almost a decade, the University of Oregon scientists recently conducted the first tests of the new vaccine on monkeys. All test animals were infected with HIV, and some of them the vaccine was introduced. In more than half of the monkeys who received the vaccine, the researchers were unable to detect the virus - even though they knew that the animals were infected. Furthermore - after a certain time in monkeys completely disappeared signs of infection.
Of course, the vaccine offered by American scientists are not able to cure AIDS, but it can stop HIV in its early stages. According to scientists, the vaccine not only suppress the virus and destroy the infected cells. If a person becomes infected with HIV, the vaccine alone fights infection, controlling and neutralizing it - and the person may not even know that was exposed to the virus.
Until the final finished appearance of an AIDS vaccine for people is still quite a lot of time: until the product has been tested only on monkeys, but in order to make the vaccine is safe for humans, scientists will have to make additional changes to the formula. Then the vaccine trials will be conducted on humans have - for a total production of finished vaccine, according to conservative estimates, it will take about eight years.
AIDS vaccine: the principle of operation
Even as a child, most people infected with cytomegalovirus - a so-called cytomegalovirus. Because the virus is present in the human body throughout his life, usually without causing any harm, the University of Oregon researchers have suggested that cytomegalovirus
Cytomegalovirus - what is its danger?
It can be an ideal tool for vaccination against HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
The operating principle of a vaccine is extremely simple and consists in creating a virus with some HIV genes to boost the immune defense against infections. Ability harmless to human cytomegalovirus exist independently in the body makes it an ideal vaccine carrier and, theoretically, can provide lifelong protection against HIV after vaccination. Scientists say that a combination of vaccines and cytomegalovirus ensures a constant activity of the immune system
The immune system - how it works?
and to neutralize the HIV virus is still weak.
To test the vaccine University of Oregon conducted laboratory tests on rhesus macaques: scientists infected monkeys dvadat four modified cytomegalovirus, and then - SIV, simian immunodeficiency virus, the human equivalent of HIV. In thirteen cases, the vaccine is quickly neutralized the infection, and the twelve test animals full protection from the virus was observed for at least a year. The level of virus activity decreased in these animals to such low levels that it was impossible to detect.
The researchers say that the vaccine developed by University of Oregon, so effectively controls the activity of the virus, which can suppress it almost forever. If researchers can develop a vaccine based on a similar product for humans, humanity may finally learn to effectively prevent AIDS.
Mankind AIDS: Past and Present
Despite decades of research on the way the creators of an effective vaccine against AIDS is still a lot of obstacles. For example, several years ago the pharmaceutical company Merck conducted clinical trials of the vaccine on patients, but in 2007 turned the study after it became clear that the vaccine not only protects people, but, on the contrary, makes them more vulnerable.
The most effective results were obtained in 2009, in the course of the study, in which sixteen thousand volunteers in Thailand were introduced just two vaccines. The results showed that the combination of two drugs reduced the risk of HIV infection by about thirty percent. However, this solution has not received wide acceptance, as well as was not too effective for mass application.
Until now, scientists have not been able to develop a vaccine that would effectively neutralize the virus that can mutate quickly and take many forms. Vaccines directed at one viral species appears to be useless against other species. Using a CMV vaccine as a carrier allows you to, say scientists, to overcome this problem - because the virus is always present in the body and constantly stimulates the immune system, the body effectively suppress infection. Quick response of the immune system can solve the problem with the rapid mutation of HIV.
How effective will such a vaccine to combat the human immunodeficiency virus
HIV - can be slow, can not be stopped
Time will tell: the clinical tests of the vaccine on rhesus monkeys conducted by American scientists showed that the effect of the vaccine was effective in only half of cases, so in the near future vaccine makers to figure out how to make the drug more effective. In addition, later scientists will need to make sure that the developed vaccine is safe not only for experimental animals, but also for people.