Motor (psychomotor) disorders - a stupor and excitement

March 31, 2011

 motor psychomotor disturbances
 Psychomotor - a complex motor acts the person closely associated with mental activity and is representative of the constitution. The term "psychomotor" is used to distinguish between complex movements associated with mental activity of the elementary motor reactions associated with the more simple reflex activity of the central nervous system.

 Motor (psychomotor) disorders - a stupor and excitement

What is the psychomotor disturbances

Psychomotor disorders - a violation of a complex motor behavior, which may occur at various nervous and mental diseases Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?  Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?
 . When gross localized lesions of the brain (for example, cerebral atherosclerosis) disorder of motor function arise in the form of paralysis or paresis, with generalized organic processes (for example, brain atrophy - reducing it in volume) such disorders may be limited by the general slowness, poverty voluntary movements, lethargy facial expressions and gestures, monotone speech, general stiffness, and changes in gait (small steps).

There are violations in some psychomotor and mental disorders. Thus, for example, manic-depressive psychosis Manic-depressive illness - which phases are the most dangerous?  Manic-depressive illness - which phases are the most dangerous?
   during the depressive phase comes the general depression of the psyche, in manic states - general motor stimulation.

In a number of psychogenic disorders psychomotor change is sharply painful character, for example, in hysterical reactions relatively frequently observed partial or complete loss of movement in the extremities (hysterical paralysis), decreased strength of movement, coordination of a variety of disorders. While there are a variety of hysterical fit mimic expressive movement and protective nature.

Of particular importance are psychomotor disorders arising from katotonicheskom syndrome. These include movement disorders from minor changes in motility as lethargy facial expressions, mannerisms, pretentiousness postures, movements and gait to severe manifestations of catatonic stupor (catatonia - a neuro-psychiatric disorder, which is expressed in muscle spasms and infringement of voluntary movements) and the phenomena of catalepsy (numbness or setting the loss of the capacity for voluntary movement occurs, such as hysteria).

Psychomotor disorders are divided into disorder, accompanied by a decrease in volume movements (hypokinesia), an increase of movements (hyperkinesia) and involuntary movements that are part of generally smooth and controlled movements of the face and limbs (dyskinesia)

 Motor (psychomotor) disorders - a stupor and excitement


By hypokinesia include various forms of stupor - mental disorders Mental Disorders - when life is fun  Mental Disorders - when life is fun
   in the form of oppression of all mental activity, including movements of thought and speech. Meets the following types of stupor:

  • melancholic depressive stupor or torpor - nostalgia, immobility, but retain the ability to respond in some way to the treatment;
  • hallucinatory stupor - occurs when hallucinations while mimic immobility combined with reactions to the content of hallucinations - mimicry expresses fear, surprise, joy; this condition may occur in some cases of poisoning, organic psychosis, schizophrenia Schizophrenia - to blame civilization  Schizophrenia - to blame civilization
  • asthenic stupor - lethargy and indifference to everything, patients understand what they are asked, but did not have the strength and desire to answer;
  • hysterical stupor usually occurs in individuals with hysterical traits (emotionally, wanting to be the center of attention, demonstrative) - the patient can lie still for days and did not respond to treatment; if you make it up, it will resist;
  • psychogenic stupor - the body's reaction to trauma; while stillness combines with a variety of disorders of the autonomic nervous system (which supplies the organs and blood vessels) - rapid heartbeat, sweating, increased or decreased blood pressure;
  • cataleptic stupor and waxy flexibility - is a condition in which against the backdrop of increased muscle tone occurs in patients with the ability to keep for a long time to give them a position.

In addition to hypokinesia is such a state as mutism - silence, when the patient does not respond to questions and does not come to anyone in contact.

 Motor (psychomotor) disorders - a stupor and excitement


Hyperkinesia arise amid increasing mental and motor activity, and are enforced automatic movement, arising from the uncontrolled muscle contractions. By hyperkinesis include:

  • manic excitement - call pathologically elevated mood; with milder forms of the disease are coordinated movements are correct, the behavior maintains focus, accompanied by a loud rapid speech; in severe forms of movement losing logic and can not be combined with the fact that the patient says;
  • hysterical excitement - usually appears as a response to their environment, characterized by a visible and intensified if the patient pay attention;
  • disorganized excitation - a cheerful ridiculous and pointless behavior elaborate mimicry; found in schizophrenia;
  • hallucinatory excitement - the patient alive react to the content of their hallucinations.

In neurology and psychiatry of psychomotor research plays an important role. Motor appearance of the patient, his manner, posture, gestures, and their compliance with the nature of the statements is an important feature, allowing the correct diagnosis.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • personality disorders

Dementia - a disease of old people?

May 17, 2009

 Often comes a variety of brain diseases is to reduce the properties of the individual, which is expressed in a more or less coarse intellectual disorders, memory loss, behavioral disorders and other symptoms. With age, and a reduction in intellectual capacity.

 Dementia - a disease of old people?

Dementia and its manifestations

Dementia (dementia) - a persistent mental impairment, a disorder characterized by intelligence, the weakening of cognitive processes, decreased emotional life and various behavioral problems.

The cause of dementia may be various psychiatric and neurological diseases. But more often the cause of dementia is old age. Individuals presenile and senile often deteriorating health, mood, self-esteem, a sense of insecurity, dissatisfaction with himself, anxiety, fear of loneliness, helplessness and death, which leads to moroseness and irritability Irritability - you try to control my temper  Irritability - you try to control my temper
 . Violated intellectual activity, reduced creativity, and critical skills, knowledge and skills acquired with difficulty. Thus gradually lost the individual characteristics of the person, grubeyut and blunted feelings, behavior changes.

Dementia can be congenital and acquired.

 Dementia - a disease of old people?

Mental retardation (congenital dementia)

Mental retardation - a congenital mental retardation, expressed in varying degrees, which occurs when various disorders during pregnancy. Mental retardation can be expressed in mild mental retardation Mental retardation - if the mind is underdeveloped  Mental retardation - if the mind is underdeveloped
   (retardation), moderate mental retardation (imbecility), and severe mental retardation (idiocy). Congenital dementia is a permanent condition, which is not peculiar to the further deepening lack of mental activity.

Congenital dementia is expressed in the inability to abstract thinking and understanding of specific situations, a limited supply of knowledge and difficulty of acquisition, underdevelopment of speech, memory weakness and poverty of emotions Emotions and culture: how to decipher the emotional code  Emotions and culture: how to decipher the emotional code
 . Slight degree of dementia diagnosis in children under three years of difficult, as in healthy children in this age there is no abstract thinking. More expressed degree of mental retardation is usually diagnosed once.

 Dementia - a disease of old people?

Acquired dementia, its types and causes

Acquired dementia may have different causes of. The most common senile dementia. Furthermore, dementia may be the result of various diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis), injuries and mental disorders (e.g., epilepsy Epilepsy - a sacred disease  Epilepsy - a sacred disease
   or schizophrenia). Dementia may be progressive when her symptoms are increasing, and not progressing. Changes can capture the whole brain (total dementia), or some part of it (partial dementia occurs for example after head trauma).

It was found that almost 30% of patients with dementia characterized by family history, and the nature of their prevailing anxious-hypochondriac traits with a penchant for long-term memorization of negative emotions. Dementia resulting from such people, characterized by slow onset, progressive course with the development of dementia with a total dysfunction of writing, reading, and even language. In the future, it is joined by a violation of control functions such as defecation and urination.

 Dementia - a disease of old people?

Pick's disease

Pick's disease changes are expressed primarily in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. Thus there is atrophy (shrinking) of certain parts of the brain. The average age of the patients at the beginning of the disease - 55 years, the average duration of their life - 6 years.

In the case of frontal lobe lesion patient becomes sluggish, inactive, apathetic, indifferent to yourself and your appearance. However, when they are outside motives may exhibit some activity. With the defeat of the temporal lobe appears stereotypical speeches, letters and movements. Dementia Pick's disease manifested initially violation ability to generalize, reduced the level of judgment, criticism. The memory for a long time is slightly impaired. It is becoming rare, up to complete silence (mutism).

 Dementia - a disease of old people?

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease - a progressive dementia that affects not yet old people. It usually begins between the ages of 50 to 65 years. In the initial stage of memory impairment observed may then appear disorientation in time and place, reduced intelligence, impaired early attention, speech and motor activity. First and foremost the ability to disappear subtle and complex movements, the development in recent years. Impoverish the vocabulary, the patient begins to miss a word. Eventually developing dementia rough, full of decay and speech recognition. Patients lie in the fetal position (in the womb), lead a vegetative lifestyle.

Similarly, the causes of Alzheimer's disease are not known, but they believe that to blame heredity, resulting in a change in the structure of one of the types of protein, which starts to accumulate in the nerve cells, disrupting their activities.

 Dementia - a disease of old people?

Treatment of dementia

Since dementia may have different causes, and then they must be treated individually and complex. In the initial stages of the disease used restorative therapy, vitamin-mineral complexes, nootropic drugs (for example, piracetam - contribute to improving the supply of oxygen the brain). In the final stages symptomatic (depending on the symptoms of the disease) therapy.

Prevention of dementia is an active way of life, reducing the energy value of food, limiting the use of fat and carbohydrate.

  Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • Dementia