Panic attacks - fear of nowhere

February 19, 2009

  • Panic attacks - fear of nowhere
  • Causes

 Panic attacks
 Panic attack or panic attack - a sudden, inexplicable, painful bout of severe anxiety and intense fear that develops for no apparent reason and causes severe physical reactions. Panic attacks make depressing impression on the man himself and to others. At the time of the attack the man think that he loses control of his body, experiencing a heart attack or even die.

Everyone throughout life can survive one or two panic attacks. But if panic attacks are repeated more often, and you experience constant fear of the next attack, you may be suffering from chronic diseases, known as panic disorder.

Before panic attacks blamed on nerves or stress, but now doctors recognize them as a separate state, and is sometimes used to refer to them the term "vegetative crisis" and "cardioneurosis." Panic attacks can significantly affect the quality of your life, but the prognosis is favorable.

 Panic attacks - fear of nowhere

Symptoms of a panic attack

The physical symptoms of a panic attack - shortness of breath, dizziness, palpitations, chest pain, sweating, trembling. Since the symptoms of a panic attack similar to the clinical picture of some life-threatening diseases, it is important to determine the exact diagnosis and prescribe appropriate treatment.

Panic attacks usually occur a few or many of the following symptoms:

  • sense of doom and impending death;
  • rapid heartbeat and pulse;
  • sweating;
  • Strong tremors;
  • shortness of breath;
  • hyperventilation;
  • chills;
  • "Tides";
  • nausea;
  • abdominal cramping Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms  Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
  • chest pain Chest pain is one symptom - a lot of diseases  Chest pain is one symptom - a lot of diseases
  • headache;
  • dizziness;
  • weakness;
  • choking or shortness of breath;
  • numbness or tingling in the limbs;
  • confusion of thought.

Panic attacks usually begin suddenly, without any warning signs. A panic attack can begin at almost any time when you are driving a car, eat breakfast, go shopping at the mall, fast asleep, or lead business negotiations. The attack can take place in different ways, but the symptoms reach a peak within the first ten minutes and stored for about an hour. After the end of the attack, you may feel tired, nervous and physical exhaustion.

The most terrible panic attack - the strongest fear of losing control over themselves, their bodies and actions (for example, the fear of committing suicide), as well as the fear of a repetition of the attack. Repetitive and debilitating panic attacks may be a sign of panic disorder, a form of chronic anxiety disorder.

People suffering from panic disorder Panic disorder - learn to not be afraid of problems So afraid of panic attacks that try to avoid any situation that could provoke a panic attack, for example, do not leave the house, since only the four walls feel safe.

 Panic attacks - fear of nowhere

When you need to see a doctor

Noticing at any symptoms of a panic attack, as soon as possible, seek medical help. Panic attacks are difficult to control, and no treatment for their frequency and may get worse. In addition, the symptoms of a panic attack is similar to a number of other serious diseases, such as heart attack, so it is essential that the diagnosis, if you are not sure what is causing the symptoms.

 Panic attacks - fear of nowhere

The reasons for a panic attack

It is not known what triggers panic attacks and contributes to the development of panic disorder. Here are some possible reasons:

  • heredity;
  • stress;
  • certain changes in the function of the brain.

Some studies suggest that a panic attack is a natural response to stress and the risk (so-called "fight or flight response"). For example, if yours is chasing a bear, your body will react instinctively heart rate quickens, there is shortness of breath. So the body prepares for a life-threatening situation. A similar reaction occurs when a panic attack. But science is not yet known why there is a panic attack when there is no apparent danger.

 Panic attacks - fear of nowhere

Risk factors

The symptoms of panic disorder often occur in late adolescence or early adulthood. Women are prone to panic attacks more than men. Many people are experiencing one or two panic attacks in their lives, usually in a stressful situation.

Factors that increase the risk of panic attacks or panic disorder include:

  • a family history of panic attacks or panic disorder;
  • severe stress How to beat stress? Create an oasis  How to beat stress? Create an oasis
  • death or serious illness of a loved one;
  • big changes in life, eg having a baby;
  • experienced childhood physical or sexual abuse;
  • traumatic situation such as an accident or rape.

Amitriptyline - helps with strong depression

February 15, 2009

  • Amitriptyline - helps with strong depression
  • What is depression and why it occurs

   Amitriptyline relates to medicines from the group consisting of tricyclic antidepressants. This drug acts by influencing the nerve cells of the brain. In the brain there are many various chemical compounds called neurotransmitters. They are a kind of chemical transmitters of messages between nerve cells. Serotonin and noradrenaline are among neurotransmitters.

 Amitriptyline - helps with strong depression

How does amitriptyline?

When serotonin and norepinephrine emitted from nerve cells in the brain, mood is improved. When these neurotransmitters again absorbed into cells, they no longer affect mood. It is assumed that, when a person has become depressed, the volume of serotonin and norepinephrine released into the brain is significantly reduced.

Amitriptyline prevents the reabsorption of serotonin and norepinephrine in the nerve cells of the brain. Thus, this product alleviates the symptoms of depression Depression - a little more than a bad mood  Depression - a little more than a bad mood

One of the most common symptoms of amitriptyline is somnolence, therefore it is most effective for people who suffer from depression, along with sleep disorders Dreams: how to understand our dreams  Dreams: how to understand our dreams
   and / or increased anxiety Anxiety - how to distinguish normal from disease?  Anxiety - how to distinguish normal from disease?

Effects of amitriptyline become apparent only after 3-4 weeks after the start of reception, so it is important to continue taking it even if you do not see any results. If you feel that depression is compounded, for example, if you have any extremely pessimistic and / or suicidal thoughts, you should immediately talk to your doctor.

In some cases, amitriptyline is used to treat bedwetting in children. The drug blocks the cholinergic receptors which are located on the surface of the muscle cells of the bladder wall. This prevents a substance called acetylcholine act on these receptors. Acetylcholine normally causes a reduction in the walls of the bladder and emptying. Limiting its activity reduces the likelihood of involuntary contraction of the bladder walls. For such therapy amitriptyline can use no more than three months.

Furthermore, amitriptyline may be used to prevent and treat migraine pain nerve.

 Amitriptyline - helps with strong depression


  • Serious liver disease
  • Recently a heart attack
  • Heart block
  • Arrhythmia
  • Angle-closure glaucoma Glaucoma - a perspective possible blindness  Glaucoma - a perspective possible blindness
  • The manic phase of manic-depressive disorder
  • Receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors) within the last two weeks as antidepressants
  • Porphyria

Amitriptyline is not recommended for the treatment of depression in patients under 16 years of age and for the treatment of bedwetting in children under 6 years.

If there are any signs of an allergic reaction to the drug should immediately stop taking and consult your doctor.

 Amitriptyline - helps with strong depression


Because amitriptyline is somnolence, regardless of how much you relax during the course of treatment should avoid driving vehicles. In addition, while you are taking amitriptyline, better to give up alcohol or reduce its consumption to a minimum, because it may increase drowsiness.

Admission amitriptyline can lead to a sharp decrease in blood pressure when you stand up - because it often begins to feel dizzy and dark eyes. This side effect is observed only at the beginning of treatment.

Antidepressants often cause a reduction in sodium levels in the blood - a condition called hyponatremia. This is one of the reasons for sleepiness, and may also cause transient dizziness, muscle spasms and convulsions. Older people are particularly vulnerable to such action of antidepressants.

Do not abruptly stop taking amitriptyline, as this may lead to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite, headaches, dizziness, anxiety, chills, insomnia. These signs do not indicate which developed depending on the drug and will soon pass. But they can be avoided if stop taking amitriptyline and gradually, in accordance with the recommendations of the doctor.