Polydactyly - a condition in which the number of fingers or toes is greater than normal. There are many different forms of polydactyly; for example, on the one hand, next to the other fingers may be very small bulge; one finger can be split in two at the end. Sometimes the brush looks generally normal, except for one: in addition to the big toe on her five fingers. Variations polydactyly almost innumerable.
Polydactyly is even in utero - formed when the hand. Sometimes the fetus appears too many fingers and sometimes the fingers are not separated properly - this condition is called syndactyly. Polydactyly and syndactyly distributed about equally; According to statistics, one out of 500 infants born with extra toes on the hands or feet. Sometimes one person present features of both disorders - such as an extra finger can be fused to an adjacent finger. It is unclear why this occurs. In some cases, the development of polydactyly may influence genetic factors - sometimes it occurs in representatives of several generations of one family.
First of all, the patient or the parents need to resolve the question of the need for treatment. Polydactyly itself is not a serious offense. Children with polydactyly successfully perform hands the same tasks as their peers with five fingers on each hand. But since Polydactyly may cause some psychological problems, it seems appropriate treatment.
Sometimes having extra fingers or toes is a sign of other disorders in the body, so a child with polydactyly should be examined with great care.
Cure polydactyly is possible only surgically. The objective of surgeons is not only the removal of excess finger, but, more importantly, the restoration of the brush after removing it. Brush in a transaction should not only look better
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But also to maintain their functionality. Depending on where the optional finger (or fingers) and how it is related to other finger, the operation may be relatively simple or very complex.
Recovery after surgery takes several weeks to several months. The most satisfactory operations are achieved when it is carried out at an early age.
Why is there
One of the causes of polydactyly is heredity. In some families, such a defect is passed from generation to generation (familial forms of polydactyly).
Polydactyly may be innate, ie occurred during fetal development
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. Often this occurs when in the early stages of pregnancy the fetus had some toxic effects (for example, taking certain drugs that have teratogenic properties, ie the ability to cause a violation of the formation of organs and tissues). Such effects on the child's body leads to the fact that there is a delay programmed death of some cells and excessive production of other cells that are used for the formation of additional fingers.
Finally, polydactyly may be due to the formation within the shell surrounding the fetus (amniotic) adhesions that can mechanically interfere with the proper development of the child.
Polydactyly is often observed in certain chromosomal diseases, combined with a number of other features.
Forms and types of polydactyly
The most common sign of polydactyly is an extra sixth finger. It may be located for the little finger (postaksialnaya polydactyly) or before (preaxial polydactyly), and found a combination of these types, ie, a combination preaxial postaksialnoy and polydactyly. Different types polydactyly in turn are divided into several types.
Postaksialnaya polydactyly can be of three types:
- type A - an extra finger fully developed and articulated head V metacarpal bone; Most often, this type of polydactyly is hereditary;
- Type B - complementary pin is not fully developed, it can be in the form of a skin appendage, and sufficiently formed, with slight defects in one or two phalanges (normally three); this type of polydactyly may be congenital;
- Type M - mixed form of polydactyly - a combination postaksialnoy polydactyly type A and B have the same rights; It can be caused by hereditary and congenital factors.
Preaxial polydactyly (polydactyly I - IV fingers) can be of four types:
- Type I - polydactyly I (big) finger - doubling dvuhfalangovogo bones (ie normal) of the thumb; found different degrees of the defect: the splitting of the terminal phalanges to complete the doubling of the thumb; hereditary defect;
- Type II - trehfalangovogo polydactyly (ie abnormal) I finger; reflected in a doubling of the terminal phalanx; such a defect is usually congenital;
- Type III - polydactyly finger II; the origin can be different;
- Type IV - preaxial polydactyly in combination with syndactyly (fusion of the fingers); found incomplete doubling or sometimes only the shortening and thickening of the I toe and syndactyly of fingers III-IV; hereditary defect.
Treatment of polydactyly - is surgical removal of the additional fingers. Most often this is done at one time, even if a few more fingers. In most cases, surgery is performed in early childhood. This is especially important when polydactyly of the foot: the correct form of the foot must be in a child before he starts walking. Methods and volume of operation in each case are selected individually, since polydactyly frequently present and other small, sometimes inconspicuous limb defects.
After the operation, prescribe a course of rehabilitation treatment (physiotherapy, therapeutic exercises, massage, and so on). This is necessary in order to prevent complications, eliminate postoperative edema
Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause
and restore normal blood flow to the area.