- Achilles tendon - how it is vulnerable?
- Types of damage
Structure and function of the Achilles tendon
Any tendon is the final structure of striated muscle in the form of bands of dense connective tissue, through which the muscles attach to the bones of the skeleton and make them move. Strong connective tissue provides a low elongation and a secure hold on the skeletal muscles.
Achilles tendon - is one of the strongest tendon in the body, but it is not for nothing has been called "Achilles" - a relatively shallow location makes it very vulnerable to damage. Achilles tendon is an extension of the three muscles (the two heads of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles), located at the back of the leg. Achilles tendon attaches to the heel bone that allows a person to move his toes.
At the top of the Achilles tendon and a relatively wide thin, tapering down and thickens, and at 3, 5 - 4 cm above the calcaneus again expanding. The tendon is enclosed in a double case which formed the fascia (thin connective tissue membrane covering the muscles) tibia. These fascia allow the tendon to slide, as there is mucus in them - this reduces friction between the tendon and surrounding tissues. The site of attachment of the Achilles tendon to the heel bone is bursa. Achilles tendon allows you to run, stand on tiptoe up the stairs.
Damage to the Achilles tendon
The cause of damage to the Achilles tendon can be direct injury or strain calf muscles. Damage can be closed (without breaking the skin) and open (in violation of the skin).
Closed injuries are common in ballet dancers and athletes failed when jumping, playing football and so on, when there is a tendon tear or detachment place of its attachment to the calcaneal tuber. At the time of the injury the victim feels a crash in the lower third of the leg, and a sharp pain on the back of its surface, the process is broken plantar flexion of the foot. When viewed on the site of an Achilles tendon rupture is detected the absence of its contours and soft tissue retraction.
When providing first aid to the victim should be given an anesthetic, to fix the leg so that the foot was in relation to the tibia at an angle of 90˚ (you can splint from scrap materials or bandage legs to each other) and taken to hospital.
Treatment of Achilles tendon rupture is most often requires the use of surgical methods. When fresh (with not older than 2 weeks) closed full disconnection all tendons can be done using a closed percutaneous suture (stitching is applied to the skin and pull together, pull together the ends of the tendons to their full contact), followed by casting of. If skin violated or if the injury occurred more than two weeks ago, the operation usually carried out by open way with wide-area damage and stitching all the tendons in the usual way and then also apply a plaster cast for a period of 3, 5 - 4 weeks, after which the prescribed medical gym, massage and physiotherapy.
Partial rupture of the Achilles tendon topically administered an anesthetic (eg, Novocain), and put a plaster cast in the position of plantar flexion of the foot for a period of 2-3 weeks.
Bursitis of the Achilles tendon
Inflammation of the bursa, located at the place of attachment of the Achilles tendon to the heel bone is called bursitis
Bursitis - if you have trouble walking
Achilles tendon or ahillobursitom. The cause of bursitis may be injured (including minor), a variety of diseases (rheumatism, gonorrhea
Gonorrhea - self-ruled
, Viral infections) in which infectious agents could enter into the synovial bag through the blood or lymph, long narrow traumatized tight shoes.
Ahillobursita signs are pain in the heel area, aggravated by dorsiflexion of the foot, as well as swelling and redness at the site of attachment of the Achilles tendon to the heel bone. In some cases the inflammatory process may lead to suppuration (abscess) bursa.
Ahillobursita confirm the diagnosis, you can use X-ray examination.
Treatment of bursitis of the Achilles tendon - is, above all, the elimination of the reasons he was called - the treatment of inflammatory diseases, wearing comfortable shoes and so on. If concerned severe pain, the prescribed thermal treatments (compresses, paraffin, ozocerite, etc.), ointments containing steroidal anti-inflammatories, relieving pain, inflammation and swelling
Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause
tissues (for example, diclofenac). In introducing processes and are used for chronic bursitis punctures to remove inflammatory content bursa and its washing with antiseptic solutions.
If conservative treatments fail, surgical excision is carried out of the bag.