Ligament rupture of the knee - the degree and types of injury

September 12th, 2010

  • Ligament rupture of the knee - the degree and types of injury
  • Treatment

 torn ligaments of the knee joint
 The knee contains four ligaments - tough bands of tissue that connect the thigh bone to the tibia and fibula. This two side (collateral) ligament, one of which is on the inside (medial collateral ligament), the other on the outside (external lateral ligament) joint. Two other ligaments (posterior and anterior cruciate ligament) are located inside the knee and intersect as arranged diagonally from the base of the femur to the top of the tibia. Damage to the knee in a fall or injury can lead to rupture of one or more ligaments of the knee joint.

 Ligament rupture of the knee - the degree and types of injury

The gap lateral ligaments

Internal and external lateral ligament is usually broken with excessive abduction or enforcement shin. If abduction crus outside the inner ligament ruptures, and if given to the shin inside damage occurs external lateral ligament. The gap lateral ligaments as possible under pressure from the outside, for example, as a result of hitting the shin. Lateral ligament rupture causes immediate pain in the injured area, but the movement of the joint is possible. Perhaps the swollen joint. The gap lateral ligaments can be complete or partial (affecting only some minor ligament forming collateral ligament). When walking or jogging discomfort may occur even after the ligament fused. In some cases, lateral ligament may solidify after subsequent injury.

 Ligament rupture of the knee - the degree and types of injury

The gap cruciate ligaments

Damage to the anterior cruciate ligament can occur under the influence of force applied to the back surface of the half-bent lower leg, particularly if it is combined with the rotation, and the posterior cruciate ligament - the sudden hyperextension shin or bounce on its front surface. Full or partial rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament immediately noticeable. Often accompanied by a tear in the knee crunch and severe pain. The knee swells rapidly and even slight movement causes severe pain, it is recommended to take a recumbent position to reduce the load on the knee joint.

 Ligament rupture of the knee - the degree and types of injury

First aid for torn ligaments of the knee joint

When the knee ligament injury suffered need to give first aid on the basis of «RICE» (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) - rest, ice, fixation, lifting. Maximum fast cooling of the injured joint to reduce the swelling Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause  Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause
   and pain.

 Ligament rupture of the knee - the degree and types of injury


Damaged knee should be in a state of complete rest for the first 24-48 hours after the injury, to prevent further damage.

 Ligament rupture of the knee - the degree and types of injury

Cooling (ice)

Damaged area must be cooled using an ice pack or any other improvised cold (frozen meat or vegetables). Ice should not be in direct contact with the skin, or the victim runs the risk of frostbite. Ice should be wrapped in tissue, and only then applying to the affected joint for twenty minutes each hour, but not more than three hours in total. Cooling shown within twenty-four hours after the injury.

 Ligament rupture of the knee - the degree and types of injury

Fixation (compression)

To fix the joint in a fixed position will require an elastic bandage. Secure joints tight, but do not pinch, so as not to disturb the blood flow and prevent tissue necrosis.

 Ligament rupture of the knee - the degree and types of injury


The injured leg should be raised above heart level, if possible. To do this, take the prone position, put it under his leg a few pillows or blankets. If the victim is in a sitting position, the foot can be placed on a chair or table. In this raised position the damaged foot should be in a few days.

 Ligament rupture of the knee - the degree and types of injury

Diagnosis of tears of the ligaments of the knee joint

The doctor examines the knee, noting the swelling. The degree and rate of swelling of the joints can indicate the severity of the injury. The doctor also checks the location of the pain along the lateral ligaments, or in place of their attachment to the bone.

The doctor also gently pushes the knee from side to side, bending and straightening it. When the knee fully extended, it should not be a feeling of looseness and instability. If the injury is severe, any movement of the knee joint can cause very severe pain that is difficult to diagnose. In this case, the doctor may use local anesthesia or impose on the bus, and assign the knee re-examined in eight to ten days. Since the ligament damage is not visible on x-ray, X-ray examination is prescribed in order to prevent injury to the bone.

 Ligament rupture of the knee - the degree and types of injury

Treatment of fractures of the knee ligaments

If the ligament rupture or a partial light, the only treatment - wearing fixation dressing to ensure the stability of the knee joint. In the case of more serious damage to the victim splint for five or six weeks. Bus not interfere bend or straighten the knee, but it does not become loose from side to side.
  Torn ligaments of the knee rarely require surgical intervention (mainly ruptures cruciate ligaments). To maintain muscle tone and ligament reconstruction may need physical therapy. It is important not to resume sporting until the ligament is not completely grow together, and the stability of the knee joint is restored.

Dislocation of the blade: it is necessary to clarify the situation

January 2, 2013

  • Dislocation of the blade: it is necessary to clarify the situation
  • Shoulder Joint

 dislocation of the shoulder blade
 Damage to the joints of the upper limb girdle are very common. Sometimes you can hear about such a diagnosis as a dislocated shoulder blade, but officially it does not exist. Usually they mean the dislocation of the acromioclavicular or glenohumeral joint.


The structure of the upper limb girdle

Blades, collarbones and muscles, which provide support and movement of the upper limbs, together form the shoulder girdle. Shoulder - a steam room flat triangular-shaped bone. On the rear surface is bone protrusion, which is called scapular spine. Its height from the inner to the outer edges gradually increased, and scapular spine goes into the acromion - the large bone process. He, along with the joint end of the clavicle is involved in the formation of the acromioclavicular joint.

Just below is glenoid cavity. It is an impression, which is connected with the head of the humerus. Outside the joint capsule is covered and strengthened by ligaments and muscles.


Dislocation of acromioclavicular joint

This dislocation often occurs in the fall on the shoulder or when you hit the collarbone. The clavicle is connected to the shoulder blade with the help of the acromioclavicular and clavicular-coracoid ligament. In cases where the breaks only the first of them, the dislocation is incomplete, and if at the same time violated the integrity of both - complete.

If the clavicle is displaced above the acromion process, such a dislocation called nadakromialnym. When podakromialnom dislocation of the outer end of the collarbone is below the acromion. The latter type of displacement of the articular surfaces of bones is very rare.

There are a number of features that are typical for a full dislocation of the acromion (blade) end of the clavicle. Man motion in the shoulder joint, as well as probing Dr. acromioclavicular joint pain. Girdle side damage looks shorter. The outer end of the clavicle acts as a step, and moves easily back and forth.

Symptom "keys" - an important sign of dislocation of the clavicle Dislocation of the clavicle: injury  Dislocation of the clavicle: injury
 . When pressed on the end of the acromion, it is easy to return to his seat. But if you let go of the clavicle, the outer part of it, as a key, rapidly rises.

In order to confirm the diagnosis, conduct X-ray examination. When taking pictures the patient should stand. When it is necessary to distinguish between complete dislocation from incomplete do symmetric radiographs of both the acromioclavicular joint.

Dislocation easy to reduce a, and then it is very important to keep the clavicle in place. Use a variety of dressings (usually plaster), while the region acromioclavicular joint impose wadding-lock. The term immobilization (creating stiffness in the joints) of about six weeks.

When chronic sprains Dislocation - Prevention and Treatment  Dislocation - Prevention and Treatment
   and in cases where conservative treatments have been unsuccessful, surgery is performed. The surgeon made of synthetic materials (silk, Dacron, nylon), autotkaney (tissues that belong to the patient) or allotkaney (taken from the body of another person) forms a new bond. After that, for six weeks in a plaster cast is applied.


Dislocated Shoulder

Traumatic dislocation of the shoulder usually occur during the fall forward or assigned to an elongated arm. The displacement of the articular surfaces of the humerus and scapula relative to each other can also occur if a person falls back on the lag hand.

Humeral head may move in different directions with respect to the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Depending on this dislocation is divided into front, back and bottom.

Signs of dislocation occur immediately after the injury that led to its emergence. Girdle the affected hand is omitted, and the patient tilts his head to the side damage. Man complains of pain and the inability of movement in the shoulder joint.

Damaged hand seems longer, she bent at the elbow, and is in the lead. In order to create peace limb, the patient holds it with his good hand.

When probing the area of ​​joint doctor discovers that the head of the humerus is in an unusual position. He must also determine whether the motion has not been violated, and skin sensitivity below the injury site, and check the pulse on the affected arm. It is necessary to find out whether the injured nerves and blood vessels.

Radiography - an important method of examination of the patient by means of which put the final diagnosis. We can not reduce a dislocation prior to this study, since it is necessary to clarify whether there are fractures of the scapula and the humerus.

Dislocation should be eliminated immediately after the establishment of the final diagnosis. This manipulation is performed under local or general anesthesia. There are many methods by which you can straighten a dislocated shoulder Dislocated shoulder - do not try to put everything in place  Dislocated shoulder - do not try to put everything in place
 . The most famous of these are ways to Kocher, Hippocrates, Mota, Janelidze, Chaklin, Meshkov.

If you fall between the joint surfaces, soft tissue, it is called a dislocation nevpravimym, and can not be eliminated by conservative methods. In this case, the arthrotomy - opening of the cavity of the shoulder joint. The surgeon then removes the obstacle and eliminate a dislocation.

No matter what method was vpravlen dislocation, impose on a limb plaster Longuet month in young people, and for three weeks in older age. In the elderly, instead of using the cast kosynochnuyu.

Patients prescribed painkillers and UHF on the shoulder joint. Before removing plaster bandage person should perform active movements in the joints of the hand. After immobilization (stiffness) of the shoulder joint is not necessary, it is advisable to engage in physical therapy.

Acromioclavicular dislocations and shoulder joints require the necessary examinations and early treatment. Therefore, the appearance after an injury of the upper limb dislocation symptoms should seek emergency medical care.