Circumcision - religion against science

July 30, 2009

  • Circumcision - religion against science
  • Indications for the procedure

 Circumcision - a surgical operation, during which removes the foreskin of boys and men. The most commonly meant by circumcision is circumcision of men, although there are female circumcision - it is much rarer and often engaged in this issue, not only doctors, but also specialists in human rights.

Circumcision is carried out for two main reasons:

  • Religious reasons - circumcision is widely practiced among Jews and Muslims.
  • Medical reasons - circumcision may be used for the prevention of certain diseases, although typically, preference is given to alternative means of prevention.

In the 19th century, many European physicians believed that circumcision promotes better hygiene. For this reason, in some countries, such as England, circumcision offered to do (and often - do) almost all boys, regardless of religion. However, circumcision was to use all the less popular to the extent that, as members of the medical community began to notice that it does not bring special benefits. Today, there are different opinions about its effectiveness, but it is still carried out not only for religious reasons.

 Circumcision - religion against science

How is circumcision

Circumcision - a fairly simple procedure, and the patient can go home a few hours after its completion. Infants circumcised usually done under local anesthesia, as it is safer for kids. Older children and adults usually done under general anesthesia (in the framework of the religious rite of circumcision is often performed without anesthesia).

The foreskin is removed with a scalpel, incision sutured, and after a while coming off the seam itself. Healing takes seven to ten days in infants, and from four to six weeks in older children and men.

Disorders in which circumcision may be useful


Paraphimosis - it's hard to disorder in which the foreskin of the penis squeezes the head, which can lead to tissue necrosis. It can be a complication of some surgical procedures in which the foreskin over time remains drawn back, because of which blood flow to it was broken.

In most cases Paraphimosis can be cured by medication, reduce inflammation, or minimally invasive surgical procedures. In rare cases, however, the treatment is necessary to circumcise.

 Circumcision - religion against science


Balanoposthitis - an inflammation of the foreskin, usually caused by a bacterial infection. Its symptoms include:

  • Pain with urination;
  • Purulent discharge from the penis;
  • Inflammation of the glans penis.

In most cases balanopospit successfully treated with antibiotics Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?  Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?
 . Circumcision is usually recommended only in case of recurring infections.

 Circumcision - religion against science

Urinary tract infections

Approximately 4% of boys before they reach 16 years of age, at least once developing a urinary tract infection. Studies have shown that boys who are circumcised, these infections occur in the 10-14 times less likely than those who did not pass this procedure. This is due to the fact that bacteria, before we get into the urinary tract, are collected in the foreskin. In most cases, however, infections occur in a mild form and do not cause serious damage. Circumcision is required only in the presence of factors that increase the risk of recurrent infections, as they can contribute to renal damage.

 Circumcision - religion against science

Diseases, sexually transmitted

We know that circumcision reduces the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and syphilis Syphilis - punishment of Venus  Syphilis - punishment of Venus
 . Studies conducted in Africa have shown that the probability of HIV infection in heterosexual men who are circumcised at 38-66% less than the uncircumcised men.

It is believed that prepuce have cells attract cells of the human immunodeficiency virus HIV - can be slow, can not be stopped  HIV - can be slow, can not be stopped
 . This means that during vaginal sex with an HIV-infected women to men who circumcised, infection is less likely than one who did not do the circumcision. But so far it is not clear why circumcision does not have the same protective effect on gay men; Research in this area continues.

As for syphilis, it is believed that circumcision reduces the risk of contracting the disease for two reasons:

  • Firstly, the foreskin creates a warm, moist environment in which bacteria syphilis feel very comfortable;
  • Secondly, in the foreskin often microcracks that facilitate penetration of pathogens into the bloodstream.

 Circumcision - religion against science

Cancer of the penis

Scientists believe that circumcision in childhood reduces the likelihood of developing cancer of the penis three or four times. This is due to the fact that in many cases, cancer of the penis starts to develop in the foreskin.

However, this type of cancer is very rare and the use of circumcision as a means of prevention can not be considered fully appropriate. This can be justified by the presence of risk factors such as cancer of the penis is a family history, or a weakened immune system The immune system - how it works?  The immune system - how it works?

Genital tuberculosis - often associated with infertility

April 17, 2014

 genital tuberculosis
 Genital Tuberculosis is caused by the spread of infection through the bloodstream from other agencies. The defeat of the urinary organs is more than 30% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis Extrapulmonary tuberculosis - many forms  Extrapulmonary tuberculosis - many forms
 . Extrapulmonary tuberculosis has significant differences from pulmonary tuberculosis and usually is secondary, that is, it develops a few years after the onset of pulmonary tuberculosis.


As urogenital tuberculosis begins

The defeat of the urinary organs usually occurs 5-12 years after the first signs of tuberculosis Symptoms of tuberculosis - easily overlooked  Symptoms of tuberculosis - easily overlooked
   other bodies on the background of decreased activity of tuberculous process. The infection enters the urinary organs through hematogenous.

Almost all patients with urogenital (genitourinary) TB can detect traces of previously transferred pulmonary tuberculosis, lymph nodes or bone. Urogenital tuberculosis is more common in men than in women.


Tuberculosis of male genitalia

In men, genital tuberculosis infection develops in contact with other affected organs tuberculosis or by contact with the defeat of tuberculosis of the ureter or bladder. First, usually affects the prostate gland, then the disease moves to the epididymis, testes, seminal vesicles and vas deferens.

In the prostate gland (prostatitis) while developing foci of caseous (cheesy) necrosis surrounded growths specific granulation (young connective) tissue. With the defeat of tuberculosis of the epididymis and seminal vesicles are found in them tubercles and caseous foci of necrosis. The testicle pockets caseous necrosis can be so significant that lead to the formation of cavities (cavities). When the healing of tuberculosis foci in male genitals grows connective tissue.

In tuberculosis patients concerned about prostate aching pain in the perineum, in the area of ​​the rectum and urethra (urethritis), sometimes lead to abnormalities in urination. The formation of cavities in the prostate is commonly found in the urine of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and pus. Tuberculosis of seminal vesicles and vas deferens are usually accompanied by tuberculosis of the prostate.

The most common form of tuberculosis of the genitals in men is the failure of the epididymis (epididymitis TB). It can be both unilateral and bilateral. The illness is usually chronic, but there are also acute.

The diagnosis is confirmed by identification of the tubercle bacillus in the ejaculate.


Genital tuberculosis in women

Women tuberculosis Tuberculosis - a full recovery is not guaranteed  Tuberculosis - a full recovery is not guaranteed
   genitalia develops much less often and is less than 3% of all forms of tuberculosis. The disease begins with the transfer of pathogens from blood or lymph from other foci. Most often, genital tuberculosis is diagnosed in women in the survey process for infertility.

Most often, this affects the fallopian tubes, where the infection can spread to the mesentery, all the layers of the wall of the uterus and ovaries. With involvement of the inner layer of the uterus (endometrium), the infection can spread to the cervix, vagina and vulva, but this is the current genital tuberculosis is rare. The spread of infection to the outside (serous) of the uterus and fallopian tubes can lead to inflammation in the pelvis (pelvioperitonitu).

The affected tuberculosis fallopian tubes are formed inflammatory tumor formation and develops adhesions that violates flotation tubes and lead to infertility.

Tuberculosis of the ovaries - rare, it leads to a widening of the ovaries first fresh connective tissue (granulation), and then to their sclerosis. It can also cause infertility, as the spikes will prevent the door egg from the ovary. In addition, such women often develop different kinds of menstrual disorders, accompanied usually by severe pain in the abdomen during menstruation. All patients with tuberculosis genitals concerned weakness, lethargy, malaise, disturbance of appetite, insomnia, irritability, Irritability - you try to control my temper  Irritability - you try to control my temper
   and sustained reduction in performance.

Genital tuberculosis in women often is prolonged and chronic. Initially, the disease goes unnoticed, but the appearance of adhesions in the pelvis leads to pain, sometimes quite intense.

Acute Tuberculosis of genitals at women also takes place, but much less frequently.

Genital TB - not uncommon, so the persistent infertility in men and women, that they necessarily examined for tuberculosis.

Galina Romanenko

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  • types of tuberculosis