- Circumcision - religion against science
- Indications for the procedure
Circumcision - a surgical operation, during which removes the foreskin of boys and men. The most commonly meant by circumcision is circumcision of men, although there are female circumcision - it is much rarer and often engaged in this issue, not only doctors, but also specialists in human rights.
Circumcision is carried out for two main reasons:
- Religious reasons - circumcision is widely practiced among Jews and Muslims.
- Medical reasons - circumcision may be used for the prevention of certain diseases, although typically, preference is given to alternative means of prevention.
In the 19th century, many European physicians believed that circumcision promotes better hygiene. For this reason, in some countries, such as England, circumcision offered to do (and often - do) almost all boys, regardless of religion. However, circumcision was to use all the less popular to the extent that, as members of the medical community began to notice that it does not bring special benefits. Today, there are different opinions about its effectiveness, but it is still carried out not only for religious reasons.
How is circumcision
Circumcision - a fairly simple procedure, and the patient can go home a few hours after its completion. Infants circumcised usually done under local anesthesia, as it is safer for kids. Older children and adults usually done under general anesthesia (in the framework of the religious rite of circumcision is often performed without anesthesia).
The foreskin is removed with a scalpel, incision sutured, and after a while coming off the seam itself. Healing takes seven to ten days in infants, and from four to six weeks in older children and men.
Disorders in which circumcision may be useful
Paraphimosis - it's hard to disorder in which the foreskin of the penis squeezes the head, which can lead to tissue necrosis. It can be a complication of some surgical procedures in which the foreskin over time remains drawn back, because of which blood flow to it was broken.
In most cases Paraphimosis can be cured by medication, reduce inflammation, or minimally invasive surgical procedures. In rare cases, however, the treatment is necessary to circumcise.
Balanoposthitis - an inflammation of the foreskin, usually caused by a bacterial infection. Its symptoms include:
- Pain with urination;
- Purulent discharge from the penis;
- Inflammation of the glans penis.
In most cases balanopospit successfully treated with antibiotics
Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?
. Circumcision is usually recommended only in case of recurring infections.
Urinary tract infections
Approximately 4% of boys before they reach 16 years of age, at least once developing a urinary tract infection. Studies have shown that boys who are circumcised, these infections occur in the 10-14 times less likely than those who did not pass this procedure. This is due to the fact that bacteria, before we get into the urinary tract, are collected in the foreskin. In most cases, however, infections occur in a mild form and do not cause serious damage. Circumcision is required only in the presence of factors that increase the risk of recurrent infections, as they can contribute to renal damage.
Diseases, sexually transmitted
We know that circumcision reduces the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and syphilis
Syphilis - punishment of Venus
. Studies conducted in Africa have shown that the probability of HIV infection in heterosexual men who are circumcised at 38-66% less than the uncircumcised men.
It is believed that prepuce have cells attract cells of the human immunodeficiency virus
HIV - can be slow, can not be stopped
. This means that during vaginal sex with an HIV-infected women to men who circumcised, infection is less likely than one who did not do the circumcision. But so far it is not clear why circumcision does not have the same protective effect on gay men; Research in this area continues.
As for syphilis, it is believed that circumcision reduces the risk of contracting the disease for two reasons:
- Firstly, the foreskin creates a warm, moist environment in which bacteria syphilis feel very comfortable;
- Secondly, in the foreskin often microcracks that facilitate penetration of pathogens into the bloodstream.
Cancer of the penis
Scientists believe that circumcision in childhood reduces the likelihood of developing cancer of the penis three or four times. This is due to the fact that in many cases, cancer of the penis starts to develop in the foreskin.
However, this type of cancer is very rare and the use of circumcision as a means of prevention can not be considered fully appropriate. This can be justified by the presence of risk factors such as cancer of the penis is a family history, or a weakened immune system
The immune system - how it works?