Oxalates in the urine of healthy people are always present, but in small quantities. If oxalate in the urine much increases the risk of kidney stones and urinary tract, development of urolithiasis
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and reducing the renal function. The only way to prevent the development of complications - dieting.
What is the oxalate in the urine
Oxalate - a s oxalic acid. Excessive release of oxalate in the urine is called oxaluria. Oxalates in the urine in the human body as a result of metabolism
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and only 5% of the oxalate formed from food. The bulk of the oxalate present in the blood (up to 95%) in the form of calcium oxalate excreted through kidneys in the urine.
Normally, the output up to 20-40 mg of oxalate per day.
Causes of urinary oxalate
Oxaluria can be primary and secondary. Primary oxaluria is a hereditary disease and is called oxalosis. Oxalosis due to violation of the exchange of glycine and glyoxylic acid and is characterized by symptoms of interstitial (with the defeat of the connective tissue of the kidneys), nephritis, kidney stones, with a gradual development of chronic renal failure and the serious condition of uremia, poisoning caused by toxic substances that leave the body through non-functioning kidney.
Secondary oxaluria occurs mainly due to excessive intake of foods rich in oxalic acid and its salts. A large number of oxalates in the diet also prevents the absorption of calcium and contribute to its accumulation in the blood, and this, in turn, is fraught with osteoporosis
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- Lack of calcium in bone tissues and their fragility.
A large number of oxalate in the urine appears as a deficit of magnesium in the diet. This is due to the chemical antagonism of calcium and magnesium - the latter inhibits the formation of calcium oxalate. The source of oxalates may be ascorbic acid, but only if there have metabolic oxalate. Therefore, people with oxaluria recommended to limit the consumption of foods rich in ascorbic acid.
For higher content urinary oxalate leads following the reception of certain drugs, such as ascorbic acid, ethylene glycol, calcium preparations, gelatin. Lower allocation of oxalate in the urine - nifedipine and pyridoxine (vitamin B6).
Oxaluria may occur after resection of a large segment of the final ileum. This increases the absorption of oxalate from the diet. It may be associated with oxaluria hypervitaminosis D.
Symptoms of urinary oxalate
Oxaluria manifested in the form of micro and gross hematuria - the periodic appearance of blood in the urine, which in the first case can only be detected by microscopy, and the second is easy to see with the naked eye - the urine becomes kind of meat slops. Hematuria is indicative of that formed oxalate kidney stones, which are injured during the passage of the wall of the urinary tract.
Sometimes urolithiasis it is asymptomatic and can be detected by chance in the investigation of urine on radiography or sudden onset of renal colic. Renal colic manifests as a sudden attack of sharp-sided cramping pain associated with blood circulation in the wall of the ureter during the passage of the stone in it.
With long-term course of the disease is a significant accumulation of salts in the tissues of the kidneys and the development of chronic renal failure.
Analysis of urine oxalate
Oxaluria may be suspected on the basis of urinalysis: microscopy reveal oxalate precipitate, it is also possible presence of red blood cells (microscopic hematuria) and leukocytes (if there is inflammation in the urinary tract.
Determination of the amount of oxalate in the daily urine allows oxaluria confirm the diagnosis.
The rate of oxalate in the urine of women is 228-626 mmol / day (20-54 mg / day) for men - 228-683 mmol / day (20-60 mg / day). Before any analysis is necessary to specify how to pass a urine oxalate. For this the night before is not recommended to eat beets, carrots and other foods that may cause discoloration of urine. Before each urine collection should be carried out toilet of external genitals. Women should not take a urine test during menstruation. The first morning urine is not considered to be a note while urinating. The following portions of going for a day in a single container. Last urine collection is necessary to make the next morning in time marked the eve. Then, the urine should be shaken, to measure its total for the day, take away the dishes in about 200 ml, indicate on the label the daily amount, and deliver to the laboratory.
Treatment of urinary oxalate
Treatment oxaluria conducted mainly through diet. A large number of oxalic acid (50 mg per 100 g) contained in the sorrel, rhubarb, spinach, tea, coffee, chocolate, beets, citrus, sour apples, gooseberries, strawberries, nuts, beans, lentils. Therefore, all these products are advised to limit. Exclude or limit as much meat, fish, mushroom broth, spicy seasoning, smoked, salted and canned foods.
The diet should include foods rich in magnesium: oatmeal, buckwheat, millet cereal, dried fruit, bread from wheat flour.
To prevent crystallization of oxalates in the urine prescribed excessive drinking sodium citrate, potassium citrate and citric acid that alkalization urine. Inside designate preparations of magnesium, vitamin B6, infusions and decoctions of herbs that can dissolve salt (knotweed, fennel
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, Strawberry leaves, horsetail, and others).
Calcium oxalate in urine is dangerous only when its amount exceeds the norm.