Herpes type 4 causes two different manifestations of the disease. Called them infectious mononucleosis - a very common viral infection, also known as the kissing disease, or the student. Burkitt's lymphoma - a tumor of viral nature, which is found mainly in Africa.
What is the herpes virus type 4
Herpes virus type 4 was first discovered in 1964 by British scientists M.Epshteynom Professor and his assistant in the tissues of the patient I.Barr Burkitt's lymphoma, Burkitt's taken an English surgeon, three years before the studies of the child who died from the disease. In honor of these scientists herpes virus called Epstein Barr virus (EBV).
Herpes virus type 4 belongs to the family of herpes viruses, double-stranded DNA and has one of the most common human viruses. It is able to replicate in human cells (including B lymphocytes) without destroying them thus, unlike other types of herpes viruses, and inducing cell proliferation (cell growth with tumor formation).
The composition of the herpes virus type 4 includes several antigens able to induce the formation in the human specific antibodies against them. This capsid (VCA), nuclear (EBNA), early (EA) and the membrane (MA) antigens.
Today, there are numerous studies to identify the role of this virus in the development of various cancers. There is evidence that it can cause breast cancer
Breast cancer: what every woman needs to know
, Limfogranulomatoz and various blood diseases. It is well established that EBV causes diseases such as infectious mononucleosis and Burkitt's lymphoma.
Herpes type 4 - infectious mononucleosis
The causative agent of infectious mononucleosis is transmitted from an infected person to person, primarily through saliva. Infection often occurs with a kiss, hence the name of the kissing disease. And as ill mononucleosis often adolescents and young people, there was also another name for this infection - Student illness.
The pathogen can also be transmitted by coughing, sneezing, through infected saliva of the patient objects. After contact with the mucous membranes of the oropharynx Epstein-Barr virus (correctly: Epstein-Barr) and propagated it becomes a shock to nearby lymph glands
Lymph nodes - what keeps our immune system
. Then it enters the bloodstream and is carried to its current in other tissues and organs, affecting mainly the liver, spleen and lungs. In the environment the virus is shed in the saliva of the patient.
The incubation period of the disease from 5 days to three weeks. But sometimes he goes on and one or two months. After this disease develops. Mainly teenagers suffer from infectious mononucleosis, in young children the introduction of the virus into the body is often asymptomatic.
The disease begins with a temperature rise, sometimes to high numbers. It appears sore throat, nasal congestion (this is due to an increase in nasopharyngeal tonsils), weakness, lethargy, fatigue, dizziness, headache, and joint pain
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. After some time on the tonsils appear characteristic greyish-yellow coating, and the temperature rises even higher, and the patient's condition deteriorates. At the same time increase in size and become painful lymph nodes - often cervical, occipital and submandibular.
In most cases, become enlarged and painful as the liver and spleen. A significant increase in spleen leads to stress its capsule and the risk of rupture of minor abdominal trauma. Sometimes the skin and mucous rash of different nature, which keeps 1-3 days and then disappears.
The disease can result in their own in 1-2 months. But the weakness and lethargy can stay a few more weeks or even months.
The diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis is confirmed by the presence of atypical mononuclear cells in the blood - large irregularly shaped cells. Also increases blood levels of lymphocytes and monocytes. Antibodies to antigens of herpes virus type 4 can be detected in blood by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and themselves antigens - PCR method.
4 Treatment of herpes type (infectious mononucleosis) is carried out mainly symptomatic agents: prescribe bed rest, drinking plenty of fluids, digestible diet, antipyretic drugs, gargling with antiseptic solutions or infusions of herbs, vasoconstrictor nose drops
Vasoconstrictor nose drops - use with caution!
and so on. Sometimes prescribed antiviral drugs, such as izoprinozin.
Herpes type 4 - Burkitt's lymphoma
Burkitt's lymphoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the lymph nodes of the B-lymphocytes exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus, which stimulates proliferation of tumor tissue. Developed tumors most often in the upper or lower jaw and gradually spreads to the entire body.
The diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma is confirmed by the study of tissue taken by biopsy. Surgically treat diseases, as well as by means of chemo- and radiotherapy.