The index of amniotic fluid: how much water should be?

March 11, 2012

 amniotic fluid index
 Amniotic fluid, amniotic fluid, or play an important role in the development and health of the unborn baby. After all, they protect the fetus from the compression of the uterine wall, protect the umbilical cord compression, are involved in metabolism Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things  Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
   and provide your child comfortable living conditions in the uterus. However, for various reasons, the quantity and quality of amniotic fluid may vary. Sometimes this leads to pathologies such as oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios. To determine the volume of amniotic fluid are a special calculation, the final stage of which is the index of amniotic fluid. In modern society, no one would risk a qualified specialist to diagnose oligohydramnios only on the basis of examination of a pregnant woman.

 The index of amniotic fluid: how much water should be?

Determination of the amount of amniotic fluid

The calculation of the amniotic fluid index (AFI) is made on the ultrasound. It can be both subjective and objective.

An experienced ultrasound diagnostician evaluates the amount of amniotic fluid by visual inspection by conducting a thorough longitudinal and transverse scanning. If the number of visual amniotic fluid, located between the anterior abdominal wall and the fruit of a substantial, the conclusion indicated polyhydramnios. When oligohydramnios, on the contrary, reduced the number of spaces available on Ehostruktura.

To calculate the index of amniotic fluid divides the uterus into four quadrants by two perpendicular lines. The longitudinal line corresponds to the white line of the abdomen and uterus divided vertically into two halves, and the transverse line is at the level of the navel and the future mother's uterus separates the upper and lower halves. Each quadrant is determined by the maximum vertical pocket, these pockets are summarized indicators that I considered to be an index of amniotic fluid.

On the normal amount of amniotic fluid shows indicators AFI 6, 0-24 cm (depending on the duration of pregnancy). If the value is equal to the vertical pocket 5, 0-2, 0 cm, say moderate polyhydramnios, with a decrease in amniotic fluid index to 2 cm or less is considered to be severe polyhydramnios. Excess AFI 8cm indicates polyhydramnios.

According to other authors of the normal value AFI is 8, 1-18sm.

 The index of amniotic fluid: how much water should be?

Water shortage

Water shortage - a decrease in the volume of amniotic fluid of 500 ml or less as a result of violations of their formation and absorption. Suspected oligoamnios obstetrician may have during the inspection and measurement of the patient's abdominal circumference and height of standing uterus. The reasons for water scarcity include:

  • preeclampsia;
  • hypertonic disease;
  • infections, including sexually transmitted diseases (toxoplasmosis, mycoplasmosis Mycoplasmosis - infection does not always equal disease  Mycoplasmosis - infection does not always equal disease
  • Chronic maternal illness (tonsillitis, renal failure);
  • fetal abnormalities;
  • Chronic intrauterine hypoxia and others.

In addition to calculating the index of amniotic fluid is performed Doppler study of blood flow in the mother-placenta-fetus. Dangerously low water delayed fetal growth (intrauterine hypotrophy), which is also determined by ultrasound. There are three degrees of malnutrition: the first power of the fruit behind in development for two weeks, while the second - two to four weeks, and the third - for four weeks or more. Often, when fetal malnutrition causes premature ripening (aging) of the placenta. To assess the condition of the fetus in addition to Doppler monitor baby's heartbeat using cardiotocography (CTG). Severe water scarcity, especially in terms of 16-24 weeks dangerous spontaneous abortion or intrauterine fetal death. Often, water scarcity is a marker of fetal malformations Fetal development - week after week  Fetal development - week after week
 . Pregnant women with oligohydramnios complex treatment (improvement of utero-placental blood flow, normalize metabolic processes fetus and placenta). With effective treatment, marks an increase of amniotic fluid and fetal weight gain. In the absence of the effect of the treatment addressed the issue of pre-term delivery (usually by cesarean section).

Anna Sozinova

Article Tags:
  • oligohydramnios during pregnancy,
  • polyhydramnios during pregnancy

Skin changes during pregnancy - natural state

July 10, 2012

 skin changes during pregnancy
 During pregnancy a woman's body goes through many changes, and, above all, such changes affect the skin condition. Stretch marks, skin discoloration, redness of the skin - all these signs of pregnancy are considered to be a very common phenomenon, and absolutely natural.



Stretch marks - one of the most talked about effects of pregnancy in terms of the condition of the skin. Characteristic signs of stretch marks - a distinct pink or red stripes on the skin of the abdomen or chest - there are ninety percent of all women during pregnancy. Fortunately, the appearance of stretch marks on the skin can be prevented, for example, applied to the skin cream or lotion with vitamin E and alpha-hydroxy acids, do not forget the constant moisture of the skin (hydrated skin elasticity and tensile causes her much less damage), physical exercise Myths about exercise: do not believe  Myths about exercise: do not believe
 . After birth, stretch marks often disappear or become almost invisible.


Melasma, or the "mask of pregnancy"

Melasma, chloasma, "mask of pregnancy" - from pigmentation disorders, very often observed during pregnancy, a lot of names. The unofficial name "mask of pregnancy" this type of hyperpigmentation Hyperpigmentation: Causes and Treatment  Hyperpigmentation: Causes and Treatment
   Skin was because most of the dark spots (hyperpigmented areas of the skin) are located in the forehead and cheeks. Such a violation is associated with changes in the level of hormones in a woman's body during pregnancy, and there is very often - according to statistics, about fifty percent of all cases. To prevent hyperpigmentation of the skin, it is necessary to use sunscreen cosmetics - during pregnancy skin is especially sensitive to UV light, which stimulates pigmentation.


Oily skin

Almost all skin changes that can be observed during pregnancy are associated with the fluctuations in hormone levels, and increased greasiness of the skin - is no exception. Even before pregnancy, the skin was absolutely normal or even dry, during pregnancy it can become fat - this is due to the fact that elevated levels of hormones stimulates the activity of the sebaceous glands, which begin to produce more sebum. The only thing that can be done in this case - to change the means for skin care cosmetics, designed specifically for oily skin. After pregnancy, the skin in most cases returns to normal.


Acne and acne

The appearance of acne and acne - one of the most unpleasant consequences of fluctuations in hormone levels during pregnancy. Even for normal skin during pregnancy is characteristic of acne, and if the skin is initially oily, acne-prone appearance, pregnancy can greatly exacerbate this problem. This is due, as well as increased oiliness of the skin, with increased activity of the sebaceous glands caused by hormonal changes. Fortunately, to prevent most of these skin problems The most common skin problems and their solutions  The most common skin problems and their solutions
   You can, with a little more time for skin care: do not abuse the washing and exfoliation (skin drying soaps and too frequent use of scrubs irritate the skin and stimulate the activity of the sebaceous glands), choose podsushivayuschee, pores cosmetics are not oil-based. For the treatment of acne Acne Treatment - squeeze is not recommended  Acne Treatment - squeeze is not recommended
   There are also special therapeutic ointment for external use - but before their use is best to consult a dermatologist.



A characteristic feature of varicose veins - swollen, lumpy, clearly visible under the skin, bluish or purple veins in the legs, appearance is often accompanied by pain. Varicose veins - quite common during pregnancy. To alleviate the symptoms or prevent the appearance of varicose veins, you need to follow a few simple rules:

  • Try not to stand on their feet for long periods of time, usually a rest
  • How can we move more to the blood circulation is not compromised
  • During the rest sitting or lying leg lift - such a posture will cause the outflow of blood from the extremities
  • Include in the diet of fruit and drinks rich in vitamin C - it helps maintain the health and elasticity of veins
  • Watch your weight


Vascular "asterisk"

Vascular "star" or "webs" - clearly visible under the skin mesh-like small blood vessels. The advent of vascular "stars" due to changes in blood flow during pregnancy - they are usually clearly visible on the face, neck, chest, hands. Any discomfort vascular "stars" are not accompanied by, and after birth, usually disappear on their own, without requiring specific treatment. In a pinch, you can get rid of them with the help of laser treatment.


Dry itchy skin stomach

With the increase in size of the abdomen during pregnancy abdominal skin is stretched, resulting in skin dryness and discomfort of itching. In some cases, dry, itchy skin of the abdomen can be a sign of quite a dangerous condition - cholestasis, liver function abnormalities, observe, according to statistics, one out of fifty cases of pregnancy. In such cases, dry skin and itching accompanied by nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes). To ease the itching and unpleasant dryness of the skin of the abdomen, you can use bold moisturizer or lotion - or else special sedatives such as calamine lotion.


The dark line on the abdomen (Linea nigra)

Linea nigra - a characteristic symptom of pregnancy, a dark band on the skin, starting at the navel and descends to the pubis. Typically, due to hormonal changes such line becomes noticeable on the fourth or fifth month of pregnancy and disappears after pregnancy or turns into almost imperceptible. Prevent its occurrence is impossible.


Darkening of freckles, moles, certain parts of the skin

Increase in hormone levels during pregnancy often leads to changes in pigmentation of the skin: moles and freckles may become darker, the skin may appear separate darkened areas. To prevent such changes in skin pigmentation can not but regard them as a cause for concern is not necessary. Only if the mole is not only darkened, but also change the shape or size become larger, it is better to consult a doctor.

Article Tags:
  • pregnancy and your body