The placenta is an important organ which is formed temporarily, however, bears the main functions of providing the child with all the necessary nutrients for the proper development. Judging by how quickly the placenta matures, judged on the state of utero-placental circulation - the main means of communication between mother and child.
What is placenta
The placenta (afterbirth), - a drive, which on the one hand is attached to the uterine wall and grows therein and the other composed of a cord blood vessels going to the fetus. Between the walls of the disk is a complicated tangle of arteries and veins through which nutrients and oxygen to the fetus receives and displays the fruit of metabolic products and carbon dioxide. Placenta also protects the baby against infections and toxic effects of various substances that may be in the body of the mother. The placenta carries and hormonal function, providing the growing fetus and uterus all the necessary hormones.
Placenta primordia appear at the end of the second week of pregnancy after embryo exits the fallopian tube and into the mucous membrane of the uterus, penetrating it as far as possible. In the first 10-12 days, the embryo is fed nutrients included in the fertilized egg, so it is not related to the mother's blood, and it can not hurt to receive the mother of any toxic substances. But after this period, the admission of women of alcohol, drugs or any other toxic substances will necessarily impact on the fetus.
The placenta begins to operate with 14-16 weeks of pregnancy, but it does not remain constant throughout the pregnancy, and changes so as to ensure the livelihoods of the fetus and maintain a state of pregnancy. The placenta there are new blood vessels, and its nap deeper embedded in the wall of the uterus.
As the placenta matures
The placenta matures gradually, reaching full maturity at about 36 weeks of pregnancy. First, its volume and weight is increasing, but the full maturity begins its gradual aging zapustevaniem a part of the blood vessels within the placenta and the emergence of sites of calcification. Also reduced its volume and weight. Born placenta after the birth of the fetus, and weighs about 500 grams
The degree of maturation of the placenta can be determined by ultrasonography (US), since the maturation varies its density tissue (ehostruktura). The study compared the degree of maturity of the placenta from pregnancy. On US also visible lime deposits in the placenta.
The degree of maturity of placenta is determined starting from the 26th week of pregnancy - from that time it begin specific changes at the edges of the placenta, which are gradually moving towards its center. All of these changes can be divided into four stages (from zero up to a third). Normally, the zero stage of maturation of the placenta found in approximately 27-30 weeks of pregnancy, the first - in the 27-36 week, the second - in the 34-39 week, the third - after 36 weeks.
The third maturation stage is a reduction in volume and placental weight and the appearance of calcification sites therein - this process is called aging placenta.
Premature aging of the placenta
Sometimes the placenta begins to age far ahead of time. The last stage of its maturation may occur before the 30th week of pregnancy. This can happen in women who have had abortions, obstructed labor, uterine trauma, infections of the uterus, and various acute and chronic diseases, including female genital organs, endocrine disorders, severe toxicosis of pregnancy. Too low attachment of the placenta also contributes to its premature ripening.
Sometimes premature maturation of the placenta is an inherited characteristic, and is transmitted from generation to generation. Premature aging of the placenta still does not mean that the fetus definitely suffer - the body of a pregnant woman is such that can compensate for some minor circulatory disorders. About the impact on the fetus has a premature aging placenta, as judged by the fruit itself and as utero-placental blood flow. To do this, conducted additional ultrasound and cardiotocography (CTG) of the fetus, whose results and talk about his condition.
In violation of the blood supply of the fetus can develop fetoplacental insufficiency
Placental insufficiency - deviation from the norm
, Causing the fetus begins to fall behind in weight due to insufficient supply of nutrients and tissue suffer from lack of oxygen. Placental insufficiency may lead to serious changes on the part of the brain and other organs of the fetus.
The maturation of the placenta - an important indicator of how well the pregnancy proceeds and the child develops.