Miscarriage - the so-called voluntary termination of pregnancy, which occurs up to 37 weeks after conception. If pregnancy ended before 28 weeks, talking about abortion, if that happened between 29 and 37 weeks, we are talking about premature birth.
By the standards of some countries in terms of premature birth may be slightly different, but in any case, for miscarriage fetal rejection occurs when it is not yet fully viable, or not at all can survive, even if the quality of care.
Symptoms of miscarriage
The most common sign of miscarriage is vaginal bleeding. Some women appear dark brown discharge
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, Others from the vagina is bright red blood. In the first trimester of pregnancy lungs, smearing bleeding occur quite often, and they are not always a sign of miscarriage. However, in a more or less severe bleeding as soon as possible to contact your doctor. Other symptoms of miscarriage may be severe cramping and abdominal pain, vaginal discharge in the form clots or fluid. Some women also disappear the previously symptoms of pregnancy such as nausea and breast tenderness.
Miscarriage in the first trimester
In most cases the causes of miscarriage in the first three months of pregnancy are chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus. Because of these anomalies fetus becomes viable, it can not develop further, and dies. It is estimated that up to two-thirds of early miscarriages due to chromosomal abnormalities.
The cause of miscarriage in early pregnancy may be the problem with the development of the placenta - an organ needed to supply the baby in utero.
Miscarriage in the second and third trimester
The following chronic illnesses can cause a miscarriage:
- Diabetes (in the absence of adequate treatment);
- Severe forms of hypertension;
- Systemic lupus erythematosus;
- Kidney disease;
- Celiac disease.
Miscarriage can also be caused by some infections, e.g., such as rubella, cytomegalovirus
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, Toxoplasmosis, bacterial vaginosis and HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis
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The following factors may increase the likelihood of miscarriage:
- Smoking during pregnancy;
- Drug use during pregnancy;
- Use of more than 200 mg caffeine per day (one cup of tea contains about 75 mg of caffeine in one cup of coffee - about 100 mg);
- Alcohol abuse.
In addition, the woman's age matters:
- Women under the age of 30 years 1 in 10 pregnancies end in miscarriage;
- At the age of 35 to 39 years ending in miscarriage 2 of 10 pregnancies;
- At the age of 45 years, more than half of pregnancies are terminated in miscarriage.
In addition, among the factors that increase the risk of miscarriage can be: taking certain medications (eg, methotrexate and retinoids), especially the structure of the uterus, uterine fibroids, polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Common Misconceptions about miscarriage
Contrary to popular belief, the following factors are usually not lead to miscarriage:
- The emotional state of a pregnant woman, for example, severe stress or depression;
- The shock or fright endured during pregnancy;
- Sports during pregnancy (however, should discuss with your doctor what loads are acceptable to you during the gestation of the child, especially if you do not have a very high level of physical fitness);
- Lifting weights during pregnancy;
- Having sex during pregnancy.
Diagnosis and treatment
If a pregnant woman began vaginal bleeding, it can be assigned to a series of tests to determine the fetus continues to develop, or not. In most cases, this is used transvaginal ultrasound. Can also be analyzed for hormones of pregnancy, first of all - on the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone
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In some cases it is possible to increase the length of term of pregnancy by using drugs that prevent uterine contractions. If the drugs do not help and will begin preterm labor, the patient is delivered to the maternity ward and the delivery took place allowing for the state of the mother and the age of the fetus. The likelihood that the fetus will survive is directly dependent on whether, at what time he was born. The possibilities of modern medicine allow foster children who were born at 23-24 weeks of pregnancy, if their weight exceeds 500 grams, however, the younger the child, the greater the likelihood that he will not survive; In addition, the equipment necessary for the care of children born at very early stages, there is not all hospitals.
If a miscarriage occurs before 23 weeks, the fetus is not viable. Usually in such cases, the product of conception rend their uterus naturally; this may occur for 7-14 days. If during this time of pain and vaginal bleeding stopped completely, it may mean that the pregnancy ended. However, should pass an examination or do a pregnancy test three weeks after the first signs of a miscarriage.
If the results of the survey show that there are still in the uterus fragments product of conception, for their removal may require surgery.
If the ultrasound shows that the development of the fetus stopped and had no signs of life, a woman may also wait for 7-14 days until the miscarriage is complete naturally, or take medications that open the cervix and cause uterine contractions. It may be preferable because for most women fetal death becomes a great shock, and many of them are psychologically difficult to wait for the miscarriage is complete by itself.
The result of miscarriage can be a variety of psychological problems, as a woman and her partner, and if necessary they should both seek help from a specialist.
Before you try to get pregnant again, you should consult on this matter with your gynecologist. New pregnancy should not occur before the woman is ready for it physically and psychologically.