- Mitral valve prolapse: the main thing - time to discover
- How the heart works
The mitral valve controls blood flow from the left side of the heart. It opens and closes with each heartbeat, blood flowing from the upper chamber to the lower. In a patient with mitral valve prolapse valve does not close tightly enough. This is one of the most common disorders of the heart.
Mitral valve prolapse is caused by the physical changes of the mitral valve. Changes such as seal and / or anomalies in the form most often causes of mitral valve prolapse. What it is their cause is unknown. Often a predisposition to the development of mitral valve prolapse is inherited. These congenital disorders as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is also associated with an increased risk of mitral valve prolapse. In rare cases, this disturbance causes diseases affecting the mitral valve tissue, connective tissue and heart muscle.
Other diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta
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and hyperthyroidism, also associated with the risk of mitral valve prolapse.
In most patients, mitral valve prolapse has minimal effect on the heart and asymptomatic. In some cases, the symptoms of mitral valve prolapse are shortness of breath, pain in the heart
Pain in the heart - always consult a doctor
and / or heart palpitations. However, it is not clear exactly how the mitral valve prolapse causes these symptoms.
In patients with severe mitral regurgitation can be observed symptoms of heart failure (such as shortness of breath, fluid retention in the body and severe fatigue) and arrhythmias (such as dizziness and weakness).
The risk of mitral valve prolapse is particularly high for those whose close relatives suffer from this disorder. Other hereditary diseases cause mitral valve prolapse significantly less.
Structural changes of the mitral valve, both congenital and acquired as a result of any disease, also increase the risk of prolapse.
Connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus
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, Osteogenesis imperfecta and hyperthyroidism
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also refer to the risk factors for the development of mitral valve prolapse.
Factors that increase the risk of complications:
- Paul. In men, complications of mitral valve prolapse occurs much more often than women.
- Age. The risk of complications of this disorder increases with age.
- Family history. Mitral valve prolapse is a family history increases the risk of complications.
- Structural abnormalities.
As mitral valve prolapse usually has no symptoms, it is usually detected during a routine medical examination. In women with mild forms of mitral valve prolapse after the onset of middle age reveal a violation is sometimes impossible.
History and physical examination
Your doctor may suspect that you have mitral valve prolapse, if he clicks or hear a heart murmur. It can also be found during an echocardiogram. If you suspect a mitral valve prolapse, a doctor will carefully consider your personal and family history, as well as conduct an additional inspection. To confirm the diagnosis may need an echocardiogram - if it is not carried out until now. Occasionally, patients with mitral valve prolapse echocardiogram showing a normal result. In general, it can be used to determine:
- The size and functionality of the left heart chamber (left atrium and ventricle)
- The presence or absence of mitral valve prolapse (if this violation mitral valve bends to the left atrium)
- Sealing and / or irregular shape of the mitral valve
- Mitral regurgitation - regurgitation through the valve.