- Treatment of angina - a versatile approach
Principles of treatment of angina involve diverse approach, and include lifestyle changes, medications, certain medical procedures. The main objectives are to treat angina is to relieve pain and discomfort, and reduce the frequency of episodes, as well as to minimize the risk of a heart attack by the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are responsible for angina.
Treatment of angina at home
To cure angina exclusively on its own is hardly possible, however, measures the patient can take on their own, play an important role in the treatment of this disorder. Patients should take steps to eliminate the following factors increase the risk of new episodes of angina and the appearance of other problems with the heart:
If you smoke and you have identified angina, of this bad habit you need to get rid of as soon as possible. The substances contained in tobacco smoke, leads to a narrowing of blood vessels, and significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. For those who do not smoke, you need to take action to protect themselves from secondhand smoke;
Losing weight reduces the load on the heart, so angina may become more scarce;
Patients with angina pectoris must devote moderate physical activity for at least half an hour, at least four times a week. Very useful these types of loads, such as brisk walking, cycling, dancing, swimming, or working in the garden. The intensity of exercise can be dangerous because they sometimes provoke attacks of angina. Treatment of angina older people also means an increase in physical activity, but it is important to be especially careful, because these patients often have comorbid conditions, because of which some sports may not be safe. Hence the need for careful study of the history and examination, before the doctor will decide what type of loads fit a particular patient;
- Nutrition is very important in the treatment of angina pectoris
Patients should plan your diet, adhering to the following guidelines:
- Every day should eat at least five servings of different fruits and vegetables;
- It should minimize the consumption of fatty foods, including fatty meats, cheeses, butter, fried foods;
- You should eat two to three servings of fish per day;
- Red meat is best to give preference to beef and mutton, even better - to have chicken or turkey;
- Use only cooking oils;
- Add to the dish as little salt, and minimize the consumption of products that are sold salted;
- Do not eat too much at one time - in some cases over-eating can exacerbate the symptoms of angina.
A number of studies suggest that the use of small doses of alcohol may be beneficial for the heart, but in large quantities it is certainly harmful. Patients suffering from angina, or should drink alcohol in moderation or opt out of them.
Drug treatment of angina
Relieving symptoms of angina attack
Angina - oxygen deficiency
. For relief of angina attacks most commonly used drug nitroglycerin. It is also used for prophylaxis before activities that may trigger an attack, for example, before training. Nitroglycerin belongs to the group of drugs known as nitrates. They expand the blood vessels, improving blood flow to the heart muscle.
Nitroglycerin is available in tablets that are placed under the tongue, where they gradually dissolve and aerosols. After taking the drug for patients may experience side effects such as headaches, hot flushes, and dizziness. Simultaneously with nitroglycerin can not drink alcohol as it may aggravate side effects.
Usually one dose of nitroglycerin relieves pain in the heart
Pain in the heart - always consult a doctor
for two or three minutes. If the first dose was not efficient enough, it is possible to take a second tablet, but not earlier than after the first five minutes and, if necessary, a third tablet - another five minutes. If five minutes after receiving the third dose of the drug the pain persists, call an ambulance.
Preventing new attacks of angina
Scheme treat angina typically includes certain drugs whose task - to prevent recurrent attacks and decrease the likelihood of complications of the disease. Such drugs tend to be taken every day for life.
First, in most cases, the doctor prescribed to patients only one drug - it's called monotherapy. If it is not effective, it can be assigned to combination therapy comprising two (or even more) different types of medicament. Based on the above it is clear that a universal answer to the question how to treat angina, does not exist: every time a doctor has to choose the most appropriate treatment based on patient characteristics. However, in most cases, doctors manage fairly quickly find the appropriate form of therapy that allows patients with angina to live many years without compromising quality of life.
- Beta-blockers. Under the influence of this type of drugs the heart begins to beat slower and with less force, whereby it requires less blood and oxygen during exercise and physical activity. Thus, beta-blockers or prevent regular angina, or make them less frequent. The most common side effects of beta-blockers are fatigue, cold hands and feet, diarrhea and nausea.
- Calcium antagonists or calcium channel blockers. These drugs are used to treat angina and relax the blood vessel walls, thereby stimulating blood flow to the heart. Among the side effects of calcium channel blockers - hot flashes, fatigue, skin rashes, dizziness. They usually disappear after a few days or weeks, when the body gets used to the drug. While receiving these drugs should not drink grapefruit juice: a combination of medications and substances contained in the grapefruit may lead to a sharp drop in blood pressure.
- Nitrates prolonged action very similar to nitroglycerin, but their effect lasts longer, and they may prevent angina. The most common side effects of these drugs are headache and hot flashes. Usually they are fast and do not cause significant patient discomfort. During medication from the group of long-acting nitrates should not take viargu - a combination of these drugs can cause a dangerous drop in blood pressure.
- Ivarbadin - a new drug that, like beta blockers, reduces heart rate. However, otherwise its effect different from the effect of beta-blockers, and this means that ivarbidin can take people who, for whatever reason, beta-blockers are contraindicated. This medication may cause a temporary appearance of bright spots in sight, resembling flashes of light. Patients who ivarbadin caused such a side effect, it is not recommended to drive vehicles, especially at night.
- Nicorandil - the medicament from the group of activators of potassium channels. Similar calcium channel blockers, it expands the coronary arteries, and it is often prescribed for people who can not accept the past. Possible side effects of nicorandil - dizziness, headache and nausea.
- Ranolazine relaxes the heart muscle, thereby improving blood flow to it, and preventing angina. Unlike other drugs, which are used to prevent angina attacks, it does not reduce heart rate, and is therefore suitable for patients with an abnormal heart rhythm. The most common side effects of ranolazine - constipation, dizziness and weakness.
The following drugs are used in combination therapy. Intensive treatment of new-onset angina and some other types of the disease may require the use of both three and sometimes even more products. Once the patient is stabilized, it is usually administered two medicament more often - aspirin, nitrates or beta-blockers.
- Statins - drugs is restricting the activity of the enzymes, which are used by the liver to produce cholesterol. Lowering cholesterol levels in the blood may prevent further damage to the coronary arteries and reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Statins can cause side effects such as constipation, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
- Aspirin can be used to thin the blood and prevent the formation of blood clots, or blood clots. This in turn reduces the risk of heart attack. Patients with angina usually prescribed dose aspirin, so that it seldom causes side effects. However, some people who take aspirin for a long time, complain of pain in the stomach (typically low or moderate and short-lived), indigestion and nausea. In cases where the patient can not take aspirin because of allergies, stomach ulcers and other health problems, your doctor may prescribe another blood thinner medication.
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to lower blood pressure. These drugs dilate blood vessels and improve circulation, but at the same time, they can reduce the blood supply to the kidneys, which negatively affects their functioning. For this reason, before you start taking ACE inhibitors, patients have to take blood and urine tests to make sure that they do not have any kidney disease. Those who will take ACE inhibitors for a long time, you must take these tests at least once a year.
Among the side effects of ACE inhibitors - dizziness, fatigue, weakness, dry cough
Dry cough - whether to worry about it?
. During the course of treatment is necessary to consult with your doctor before you start taking any other medicines or dietary supplements
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