Angina: When the heart needs help - Treatment
May 25, 2008
- Angina: When the heart needs help
- First aid
Treatment of angina pectoris
Treatment of Angina includes lifestyle modification, medication, a number of medical procedures, cardiac rehabilitation, and so on. The main objectives of the treatment - reducing pain and discomfort, reduce the frequency of attacks and preventing or reducing the risk of heart attack. If the patient has stable angina
Stable angina - one of the manifestations of coronary heart disease
And the symptoms are mild and the disease does not progress, it is enough to make some changes in your lifestyle in order to achieve significant improvements. However, even in these patients may be advised to always carry medication for relief of an attack and to closely monitor its condition at the time of exercise.
Patients with angina are advised to avoid undue stress and severe stress, there are small portions and not to abuse the heavy food, smoking cessation. The last point is the most important, since smoking can cause damage to blood vessels and increase the risk of new episodes of angina and heart attack. Proper nutrition helps moderate and angina patients to reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood and maintain normal blood pressure. If that's not enough, you should take medication, normalizes blood pressure.
Most often used in the treatment of angina drugs in the class of nitrates. The most famous of them - nitroglycerin; carried out with the help of relief of angina pectoris (if it is stable or variant angina). Unstable angina attack
Unstable angina - alarm organism
it is impossible to stop using the drug.
Nitroglycerin tablet during the attack placed under the tongue, mouth or injected into aerosol nitroglycerin. Acute Angina - that is, the actual attack - should take place no more than fifteen minutes after the first dose of nitroglycerin. In total, it can be taken up to three times in a row, but if the three doses of the drug did not help stop an attack, you need to call an ambulance.
If the patient is hospitalized in a hospital it is usually provide multiple medications that thin the blood (to prevent formation of a blood clot, which can completely block the coronary artery) and relaxes the walls of blood vessels. Can be used and drugs that reduce heart rate - because of this the heart will require less blood (stroke, as we know, it begins with the fact that it can not get enough blood), and the pain gradually pass.
Members of the medical staff will constantly monitor the condition of the patient, and the patient should immediately notify your nurse or doctor if he'll feel chest pain
Chest pain is one symptom - a lot of diseases
Or if the chest pain will intensify. Incidentally, the nursing process for angina include a clause according to which the patient should be instructed him to report without delay any deterioration. Often, this feedback allows faster than any diagnostic procedure to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy, and sometimes the time to understand what was chosen is not enough effective method of treatment.
Furthermore nitrates for angina used as beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents; they help lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels, to relax the blood vessels, reduce the heart rate, prevent blood clots.
Surgery is necessary if other measures do not help to control the symptoms of angina. Most often in such cases performed angioplasty or coronary bypass surgery. Both of these operations can improve blood flow in coronary arteries, alleviate angina and, in some cases, to prevent a heart attack.
Cardiac rehabilitation - a special program to restore the health and well-being in people with heart disease. It can be used for angina, heart surgery, and heart attacks. The team that conducts cardiac rehabilitation may include doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, nutritionists, psychologists and other specialists. The patient can be assigned to a special set of exercises compiled in view of its features, a course of massage, diet; it may also be offered psychological counseling. Performing certain exercises helps a person to return to an active life gradually, and without putting your health at risk. Massage angina has many useful properties: it helps prevent vascular spasms, relieves stress (including psychological), and even relieve pain.
In addition, in the process of cardiac rehabilitation patients provide as much information about his illness: at the end of this program, it has to know exactly what to do during an attack of angina pectoris
Angina - oxygen deficiency
How to reduce the likelihood of new attacks, and so on.
Prevention of angina
Prevent angina is not always possible. However, you can reduce the chance of developing the disorder, if you follow these guidelines:
- Quit smoking and avoid situations in which you become a passive smoker;
- Eat right;
- Maintain a healthy weight;
- Train at least four times a week and every day you walk for at least half an hour;
- Learn to control stress - choose a feasible workload, get enough sleep every day find time to relax and dedicate this time only for those classes that bring you joy.
Ischemia - when the brain fails to work - the heart and kidneys
September 14, 2008
- Ischemia - when the brain fails to work
- Heart and kidney
- The legs and the spinal cord
Coronary heart disease - a condition in which impaired blood flow to the myocardium. It is also called myocardial ischemia
Myocardial ischemia - the effect on the functional activity of the heart
. If blood flow is stopped and partly for a short time, it happens angina
Angina - oxygen deficiency
. This may occur more or less frequently, depending on what caused the ischemia, and how well people are watching their health, but, be that as it may, the majority of people suffering from angina, can, in spite of his illness for many years live a full life. If the attack ischemia leads to a complete cessation of blood supply to certain areas of the myocardium in humans happens infarction, or heart attack.
There are several types of myocardial ischemia, such as subendocardial and subepicardial ischemia - the names of species associated with the disease, which areas of the heart it touches. For diagnosis it is held at rest ECG and load tests of blood (in particular, blood sugar and creatinine
Creatinine - will talk about the work of the kidneys
in the blood), ischemia index determined, in many cases assigned coronary angiography.
There is also a painless ischemia, which is very dangerous because it does not cause severe symptoms, which is why many patients go to the doctor only at a late stage of ischemia, when problems with the blood supply to the myocardium has time to cause serious and often irreversible consequences for health. As the name suggests this form of ischemia, it does not cause pain, characteristic of angina attacks. Some patients, however, this violation may occur symptoms such as shortness of breath with little physical exertion, reduced or increased heart rate, heartburn, low blood pressure, weakness, tingling or numbness in the left arm.
Silent ischemia on the ECG is already visible before it has time to cause serious problems, so regular checkups at the doctor allow time to reveal a violation. The causes of myocardial ischemia can be coronary artery disease, uncontrolled hypertension, atherosclerosis. Among the factors that increase the risk of developing these disorders - severe emotional stress
How to beat stress? Create an oasis
, Smoking, sedentary lifestyle, overeating, intense exercise.
Renal ischemia or ischemic nephropathy - not the most common disease, but it is dangerous because over time he may be practically absent symptoms. Its effects can be acute renal sufficiency - a violation which in extreme cases leads to death of the patient. Factors that increase the likelihood of developing ischemic nephropathy identical factors associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease; these include - smoking, hypertension, diabetes, old age, elevated blood cholesterol. Often kidney ischemia causes symptoms only when developing kidney failure, which may be signs of severe pain in the abdomen and in the lumbar region, fever, increased blood pressure, nausea, pallor, convulsions. When these signs need to immediately seek medical care.
Transient ischemic attack, or transient ischemia - a disorder that is sometimes called a mini-stroke. Its symptoms are similar to symptoms of a stroke, and one of the three people who have had a transient ischemic attack, a stroke occurs once; half the time it occurs throughout the year.
Signs of transient ischemia - weakness, numbness or paralysis of the face, hands and feet, usually only one side of the body; slurred speech; impairment or loss of vision in one or both eyes, dizziness, and problems with coordination. These symptoms disappear within a few minutes.
Factors that increase the likelihood of transient ischemia and, in consequence of stroke include:
- Age - these abuses are most often found in people over 55 years old;
- Paul. Transient ischemia is slightly more common in men than in women, although women are more likely to die from stroke;
- Elevated cholesterol levels in the blood;
- Cardiovascular diseases;
- Peripheral arterial disease;
- Elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood;
- Sedentary lifestyle.
To reduce the risk of stroke after transient ischemic attack, your doctor may advise the patient to take medication to thin the blood and make lifestyle changes - start to eat right, move more, give up bad habits. In some cases, however, it may require prophylactic surgery.
Finally, the classification of the various ischemic disorders are two broad types of ischemia, both obstructive and angiospastic ischemia. The first occurs when blood flow to the body blocks a blood clot, while the second is the result of a spasm of the blood vessel.