Diskoloratsiya skin, because of which there are white or pale pink spots - a very common problem. Typically, white spots on the skin are not accompanied by pain, but they can cause itching, constant discomfort, and psychological problems related to human discontent own appearance.
Causes of white spots on the skin are very diverse.
White spots on the skin of the trunk and limbs may be a sign of a fairly common disease - vitiligo. In this disorder white spots occur due to the fact that the skin loses melanin - a pigment that is normally produced by cells called melanocytes. Diskoloratsiya caused by damage to melanocytes, and why this happens is still not known exactly. According to one of the most common and plausible theories of vitiligo - an autoimmune disorder, and the melanocytes are destroyed by the immune system of the patient. Furthermore, it is known that the susceptibility to the development of vitiligo is due to genetic factors.
In average, vitiligo some extent affected to 2% of the world population, even in different countries, the proportion of patients with this diagnosis may be different. The first signs of the disease usually appear early, between the first and third decades of life. White spots on the skin of a child is often a symptom of vitiligo; Other disorders associated with hypopigmentation of the skin, usually develop in older age.
Most often, vitiligo affects areas of the body that are most of the time not covered by clothing, and skin folds (eg armpits).
Its symptoms can also appear in areas where the skin has previously been damaged and around birthmarks
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. Typically, pigment loss occurs rapidly, but occasionally occur more or less prolonged periods when the disease is not progressing. In some cases, the development of vitiligo really stops, but in many patients the disease progresses stages throughout life alternate with periods of calm.
The treatment of white spots on the skin in vitiligo takes a long time and does not always produce the expected result. Unfortunately, there are no drugs or operations that could be guaranteed to return the patient's skin vitiligo its normal color. Small white spots can be more or less effectively masked by a foundation, powders and concealers. In addition, the patient may be given a corticosteroid ointment that can be partially or fully restore skin pigmentation - especially if you start to use them at the earliest stages of the disease. In the treatment of vitiligo patients children usually applied ointment less concentrated than those for adult patients are assigned. The first results are visible not earlier than three months after the start of use of ointments.
Corticosteroid ointment are the easiest and safest treatment for vitiligo, but they are not so effective as, for example, photochemotherapy with psoralen. Using this method, the patient is taking psoralen in the form of tablets or ointment using this substance, but its skin is regularly exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA). Procedures are carried out in the clinic, where there is the necessary equipment, at regular intervals. By the procedures necessary to reduce skin exposure to ultraviolet radiation to a minimum. Under the influence of ultraviolet psoralen gradually gives vitiligo affected areas of the skin a darker color.
Psoralen ointment is usually prescribed to patients with small areas of hypopigmentation, and tablets - for those who have white spots cover more than 20% of the body surface. Fitohimioterapiya with psoralen - a lengthy and expensive procedure, which, moreover, can cause a number of serious side effects. Before you agree to such a treatment, the patient should undergo a thorough examination, and how to weigh the pros and cons of this method of treatment.
Depigmentation may be the best choice for people who have vitiligo struck more than 50% of the surface of the skin. Patients applied twice a day on the skin, which still pigment ointment hydroquinone or less, with other active substances. Treatment continues for as long as pigmented areas become much lighter, and skin tone is aligned. The skin of the patient after such treatment becomes very sensitive to sunlight, and he will always have to take measures to protect against UV.
Activators of this disease are fungal organisms Malassezia, which normally inhabit the human skin in small quantities. Under certain circumstances, they can start to multiply excessively active, resulting in a reddish-brown or dry white spots on the skin of the neck, abdomen, thighs and forearms. This disease is not contagious.
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sometimes called solar fungus, since they often fall ill people who have come to rest in warm countries. In fact, exposure to bright sunlight here at anything; Malassezia is actively multiplies in hot and humid climates, but the light for it is not very important. This is facilitated by factors such as heavy sweating, oily skin
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, Nutritional deficiencies, pregnancy, use of corticosteroids, and a weakened immune system.
For treatment of tinea versicolor used antifungal agents such as terbinafine, clotrimazole and miconazole.
In the affected areas of skin and can be applied to a shampoo containing selenium sulfide. Usually it is recommended to do before going to bed
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And rinse the shampoo in the morning. If symptoms of tinea versicolor are stored for two weeks after the start of use of the above funds, talk to a dermatologist.
Idiopathic guttate gipomelanoz
Characteristic features of the disease are small (with a diameter of two to five millimeters) white spots on the skin of the face, arms, shoulders and legs. In most cases, they are smooth, but sometimes the spots start to peel off. This disorder is most common among women and people with fair skin.
The word "idiopathic" in the name of the disease suggests that the precise reasons for its development are not known. However, experts suggest that idiopathic guttate gipomelanoz associated with the natural aging process, because it is most often diagnosed in people older than 40 years. Probably play a role, and hereditary factors, as is common in violation of blood relatives. For the treatment of this disease with corticosteroid ointments and tretinoin, dermabrasion, microdermabrasion cryotherapy.
There are several varieties of this disease; the appearance of white or pale pink spots on the skin causes pityriasis white. Typical symptoms of this disorder - white spots on the skin of hands, neck and face. New spots may be raised and reddish, but gradually they become flat and white. They are especially noticeable in the summer, when skin with normal pigmentation sunbathe. In winter, the white spots on the skin can peel off strongly. The causes of pityriasis unknown.
In the treatment of pityriasis white apply ointment containing a substance pimecrolimus, intense moisturizers, and toners. In the case of itching and inflammation ointments can be used at a lower concentration of steroids. Usually, skin pigmentation in patients with pityriasis bounces back over a period of several months to two or three years.