Types of worms and the consequences of their occurrence

June 25th, 2013

  • Types of worms and the consequences of their occurrence
  • Ascaris symptoms
  • Roundworm treatment
  • Ascaris in children - Treatment
  • Tapeworms
  • The consequences of tapeworm infection
  • Treatment of tapeworm
  • Dangerous parasites

 Every fourth person in the world is infected with intestinal worms (helminths). Diseases that cause these parasitic worms, called helminths. In children, such states are far more common than in adults. Some types of worms lead to chronic diseases of internal organs, and sometimes become a cause of serious complications and death.

 Types of worms and the consequences of their occurrence

What types of worms

All worms have their biological features. Depending on this, they are divided into three classes:

  • Nematodes (round worms): Ascaris, whipworm, pinworm, krivogolovka duodenum, American hookworm, intestinal ugritsa, Trichinella;
  • Cestodes (tapeworms): pork tapeworm, bovine tapeworm, dwarf tapeworm, a tapeworm, alveococcus, Echinococcus;
  • Trematodes (flukes): cat fluke and liver fluke.

Also distinguish two large groups of parasitic worms: geohelminthes and biohelminths. For the first of them characterized by the absence of an intermediate host (human or animal body in which the worms are as larvae or eggs). This is due to the fact that the need for such helminths oxygen maturation of eggs is therefore in most cases in the soil.

When biogelmintozah for the development of the parasite is necessary not only definitive host (the body, which is inhabited by mature parasites or worms Worms - how dangerous they are?  Worms - how dangerous they are?
   reproduce sexually), but one or two intermediate. Eggs and larvae of some helminths (dwarf tapeworm, pinworms) are distinguished from human mature or nearly ripe. So the worms do not need to develop in the intermediate host or in the environment, and they are at this stage are infectious to humans.

If the adult forms of parasites live in the intestinal lumen, these are called intestinal helminth infections. These include, for example, include ascariasis, strongyloidiasis, ancylostomiasis and trichinosis.

The mature form of other helminths may be in the blood and lymph vessels, lungs, liver, and connective tissue. Such helminthoses extraintestinal considered. This group includes opistorhoz, fascioliasis, paragonimiasis and some other diseases.

Helminth infections, causative agents are able to complete their life cycle only with the participation of the person referred to anthroponoses. When zoonoses parasite persists in nature and makes a full cycle of development in animals, these worms can exist independently of the people.

 Types of worms and the consequences of their occurrence


These worms cause the disease called ascariasis. In the small intestine of an infected person are mature individuals, that is where the female parasites lay eggs. Last fall into the environment with feces (the feces) and mature in the soil up to the infective stage, ie when they are contagious.

A person can get sick ascariasis if drink water or eat foods that are the eggs of Ascaris. This usually occurs in the warmer months. Children are infected more often than adults.

In the intestine, the larvae hatching ascarids, enter the bloodstream and end up in the liver, then transported to the lungs, which come from the alveoli into the oropharynx. The person ingests larval parasite saliva, and they are again in the small intestine. It was there that after a while they become sexually mature.

Travel through the body larvae can injure blood vessels of the liver and lung, intestinal wall. If mature roundworm fall in the appendix, that develop acute appendicitis. Zapolzaniya worms in the bile ducts can cause purulent cholecystitis, liver abscess and even peritonitis.

In the first days after infection appear malaise, weakness, headache, irritability, increased body temperature. Sometimes there is pain in the joints Joint pain - how to understand what is going on?  Joint pain - how to understand what is going on?
   and muscle pain, itching and rash.

For ascariasis are especially characteristic signs of lung disease. There are chest pain Chest pain is one symptom - a lot of diseases  Chest pain is one symptom - a lot of diseases
 , Shortness of breath and cough, it is often dry, sometimes with scanty sputum and bloody.

During the chronic phase, when the parasites are found in the intestines of man usually did not bother. But sometimes there is pain in the abdomen Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms  Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
 , Diarrhea, constipation or alternating.

 Types of worms and the consequences of their occurrence


Pinworms lead to the development of enterobiasis. Man - the only source of infection. The mature worms parasitize in the small blind, and the ascending colon.

After fertilization, the males die and the females go down to the rectum. At night, they crawl out of the anus, lay their eggs on the skin around it and then die. Eggs contain the larvae of the parasite that eventually ripen in a few hours.

Infected enterobiasis possible ingestion of pinworm eggs, which fall into the mouth with contaminated hands, bedding and household items. If a person (usually a characteristic of children) combs itchy skin around the anus, and do not wash your hands afterwards, you can re-infestation.

In the small intestine, the larvae emerge from the eggs of pinworms and two weeks in the colon become mature. Symptoms of the disease may not be detected, but often in the body parasites tens and hundreds of individuals. Patients worried about itching and burning around the anus, with a massive infection, they become unbearable, apply to the perineum, genitals, thighs, abdomen, and do not stop for the night or day. Because of this, a person can not sleep and becomes irritable.

In the most severe cases, disrupted bowel, constipation or diarrhea occur, sometimes with blood. There are pain and rumbling in the abdomen, nausea, and some people vomit.

Pinworms can damage the intestinal mucosa and lead to inflammation and bleeding into it. Sometimes there is a rupture of the intestinal wall, and its contents into the peritoneal cavity, i.e. peritonitis develops. Worms can creep into the female genital organs, and provoke the development of inflammatory diseases of the vulva, vagina and uterus.

 Types of worms and the consequences of their occurrence

Bovine tapeworm (tapeworm unarmed)

This helminth causes the disease, which is called the beef tapeworm. Body bovine tapeworm has a ribbon-like shape and is ten meters long. It consists of a large number of elements - segments, within each of which there are eggs with embryos of the worm. At the head of the parasite (scolex) has four suckers.

Intermediate host helminth - cattle, in the intramuscular connective tissue of these animals develops cysticerci (helminth larval stage). People can get sick beef tapeworm infection when they eat inadequately treated infected meat. Then the man becomes definitive host of the parasite.

After about three months in the small intestine from the body of the worm detach mature segments. They get into the environment with feces.

Adults because dietary habits are much more likely to develop this helminthiasis than children. Beef tapeworm infection is more common in rural areas, especially in those areas where a well-developed animal husbandry.

Suckers parasite damage the mucous membrane of the small intestine, and the products that are formed during the life of the worm, a toxic effect on the human body. Also, the latter is not getting enough nutrients from the fact that the parasite consumes them himself.

Patients experience malaise, weakness and irritability. Appetite increases first, but after a while disappears.

Often a person feels pain in his stomach, he was concerned about nausea, rumbling in the stomach, diarrhea occurs periodically. At night, the mature segments can independently crawl out of the anus.

In a weakened people headaches, dizziness, sleep disturbances. Sometimes develop syncope and seizures.

 Types of worms and the consequences of their occurrence

Pork tapeworm (tapeworm armed)

Pork tapeworm infestation leads to teniasis. The body also has a parasite ribbonlike shape, its average length of two meters. At the head of the worm, there are four suckers and proboscis with hooks.

Tapeworm intermediate hosts - domestic and wild pigs, dogs and cats. People sometimes also become intermediate hosts, this occurs if the connective tissue between the muscles is the larval stage of the worm as a Finn (cysticerci). Recent resemble bubbles drawn into the head.

The man (definitive host) teniasis ill when consuming raw or half-baked pork, which contains with the Finns. When they get into the digestive tract, scolex is inverted, and the parasite is transformed into an adult worm. Periodically separated from the body of the tapeworm mature segments (eggs inside them are) and faeces into the environment. Symptoms resemble teniasis teniarinhoza signs, but they are more pronounced.

If a person is infected with tapeworm eggs (for example, with objects of the environment or throwing mature segments of the intestine to the stomach during vomiting), the developing tsistetsirkoz. Manifestations of such conditions may be different, depending on the location of the Finn, their number and stage of development of the parasite.

In most cysticerci detected in brain, skeletal muscle, myocardium, subcutaneous tissue and eyes. Parasites compress surrounding tissue, inflammation develops around them, and the metabolic products of worms have on human toxic and allergic effects.