Festal - help for problems with the stomach - What are enzymes

February 14, 2010

  • Festal - help for problems with stomach
  • What are enzymes

What are enzymes

Enzymes - a special proteins capable of many times to speed up chemical reactions in the human body, thus not entering into the composition of the final reaction products. That is, the enzymes are biological catalysts - amplifiers chemical reactions.

All chemical reactions occurring in the human body, accelerate the corresponding enzymes. Digestion, absorption and assimilation of nutrients, education and the breakdown of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and other compounds in the human tissues and cells is a set of enzymatic reactions.

Most enzymes - proteins are complex in structure except that the protein component includes nonproteinaceous (coenzyme). Only connect together the protein component and coenzyme can cause enzymatic reactions. Most are derivatives of vitamin coenzymes.

All enzymes are divided into a plurality of classes and subclasses. One of these classes are digestive enzymes.

 What are enzymes | Festal - help for problems with stomach

The mechanism of action festal

Festal is a combined preparation, which comprises pancreatin Pancreatin - a means to improve digestion  Pancreatin - a means to improve digestion
   (a mixture of pancreatic enzymes), bile extract and hemicellulase. He produced in the form of pills, enteric-coated.

The mechanism of action is due to festal its constituent components. Pancreatin contains amylase, helps to digest carbohydrates, protease - proteins, lipase - fats. Bile extract contained in festale promotes fat emulsification (formation of smaller fat droplets suspended in the intestinal content) increases the activity of lipase improves the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, K). Hemicellulase - an enzyme which is involved in the degradation of plant tissue, thereby preventing the allocation of large amounts of gases. All these components become operative only in the duodenum (which is here called the common bile duct, having in its composition of pancreatic juice), as by dissolving in the stomach dragees protects special enteric coat.

As a result of all the components of festal it is faster and more complete digestion, eliminates various disorders of the digestive system that can cause discomfort in the form of a feeling of heaviness and fullness, bloating, shortness of breath, diarrhea. Festal also stimulates the secretion of bile and pancreatic enzymes own, stomach and small intestine. In diseases of the pancreas compensates for the failure of her festal digestive enzymes and improves digestion and functional state of the digestive organs.

 What are enzymes | Festal - help for problems with stomach

Indications for admission

The indication for admission festal are:

  • a feeling of fullness, bloating, caused by the intake of fatty or unusual food, overeating;
  • digestive disorders associated with impaired chewing function (lack of teeth, gum disease, fitting dentures) and long immobilized position, contributing to the violation of motor activity of the intestine;
  • dysfunction of the pancreas Diabetes and pancreas - the things you need to know  Diabetes and pancreas - the things you need to know
 , Stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, associated with chronic diseases of these organs;
  • state after operations on the organs of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • diarrhea caused by dysfunction of the digestive system (non-infectious);
  • intestinal infections (in the complex therapy);
  • preparations for X-ray and ultrasound of the abdominal cavity.

Perhaps the use of the drug during pregnancy and breastfeeding Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!  Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!
   child. After suffering acute pancreatitis or exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis festal can only take prescription.

Take festal of pills three times a day during or immediately after a meal. Swallowed whole without chewing, you can drink water.

 What are enzymes | Festal - help for problems with stomach


Reception Festal is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to the drug, and in acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis. In any acute gastrointestinal disease festal can be used only on prescription, as it may cause further deterioration of the process.

 What are enzymes | Festal - help for problems with stomach

Side effects that may occur while taking festal

When you receive a festal may appear allergic reactions (rash and itching, sneezing, watery eyes), diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms  Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
 , The appearance of sugar in urine. In children, it may cause irritation of the skin in the anus, irritation of the oral mucosa.

When taken together with the festal iron preparations the absorption of the latter is broken. However, when taking in conjunction with antibiotics and sulfonamides their absorption, by contrast, increases.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • Festal

Reglan: help against nausea - The mechanism of action of Cerucalum

April 7, 2011

  • Reglan: help against nausea
  • The mechanism of action of Cerucalum
  • Contraindications
  • Dosage
  • Side effects

The mechanism of action of Cerucalum

Reglan (INN - metoclopramide) - is an antiemetic drug, which is produced by different pharmaceutical companies are also under the names of metoclopramide-Acre and perinorm. Cerucalum action mechanism is that it blocks dopamine receptors that transmit pulses from the lower part of the stomach and duodenum to the emetic center located in the brain, thereby preventing the relaxation of smooth muscles of the stomach. It exerts a normalizing effect on the tone and motor activity of the stomach and duodenum, accelerates gastric emptying, reduces stasis food in the stomach in violation of gastric acid secretion and prevents backflow of food from the stomach into the esophagus from the stomach into the duodenum, stimulate motor activity of the intestine. After applying Cerucalum are nausea and hiccup.

A side effect of Cerucalum - stimulation of prolactin secretion (pituitary hormone that promotes the production of breast milk) and aldosterone (a hormone of the adrenal glands, contributing to a delay in the body fluid and salts), which may be accompanied by short-term retention.

After ingestion Cerucalum rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and into the blood stream, it can penetrate into the tissue of the brain and spinal cord, to pass through the placenta and into the fetus. Cerucalum decomposed in the liver, and then excreted in urine in an unmodified form, or in the form of metabolic products (metabolites), as well as human milk.

 The mechanism of action of Cerucalum | Reglan: help against nausea

Indications and contraindications for the appointment Cerucalum

Indications for use Cerucalum:

  • nausea, vomiting and hiccups of various origin (except for violations of the vestibular apparatus);
  • violation (weakening) of the motor activity of the stomach, intestines and bile ducts;
  • inflammation of the esophagus accompanied by the constant regurgitation of food (reflux esophagitis);
  • functional stenosis (spasm) gatekeeper (the place of transition of the stomach into the duodenum);
  • rentgenologichesie studies of the gastrointestinal tract with contrast material (to enhance peristalsis and better contrast for the passage of the gastrointestinal tract);
  • paresis (temporary immobilization) of the stomach in diabetes;
  • duodenal sounding - to accelerate gastric emptying and to promote food through the intestines.

Contraindications for use Cerucalum:

  • bleeding from the digestive system;
  • obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • perforation (perforation of the wall), stomach and intestines;
  • pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal gland, which secretes hormones stress How to beat stress? Create an oasis  How to beat stress? Create an oasis
   - Adrenaline and noradrenaline);
  • extrapyramidal disorders (movement disorders), epilepsy;
  • some types of hormonal tumors (depending on the pituitary hormone prolactin);
  • increased intraocular pressure - glaucoma Glaucoma - a perspective possible blindness  Glaucoma - a perspective possible blindness
  • pregnancy (I term can not be applied, II and III trimester - only in agreement with your doctor), breast-feeding Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!  Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!
   baby and children up to two years;
  • the simultaneous use of drugs that suppress the increased motor activity of internal organs;
  • Hypersensitivity to tserukalu.

Precautions Reglan is prescribed for high blood pressure, asthma, disorders of the liver and kidneys, and children. During treatment tserukalom not be used alcohol should refrain from activities requiring attention (eg, driving a car).

 The mechanism of action of Cerucalum | Reglan: help against nausea

Side effects that may occur while taking Cerucalum

In applying Cerucalum, the following side effects:

  • the central nervous system: fatigue, headache, dizziness, feeling of fear, anxiety, mood disorder, somnolence, tinnitus, involuntary tics (twitching) muscles of the face, neck or shoulders, spasm of mimic and chewing muscles of the face, speech disorders, spasms periocular muscles and neck muscles, other movement disorders;
  • From hemopoiesis system: agranulocytosis - a decrease of granular white blood cells responsible for cell-mediated immunity - dramatically weaken the body's defenses;
  • on the part of the circulatory system: heart rate, increase or decrease in blood pressure;
  • the part of the gastrointestinal tract such as constipation, diarrhea, dry mouth;
  • on the part of the endocrine system: increased secretion of prolactin can cause breast enlargement in men, women - involuntary outflow of milk from the breast, menstrual irregularities.

Overdose Cerucalum causes drowsiness, impaired consciousness, irritability Irritability - you try to control my temper  Irritability - you try to control my temper
 , Anxiety, jerking, disorders of the cardiovascular system, increase or decrease in blood pressure. When such signs tserukal cancel and often through the night all the phenomena of poisoning disappear. In severe cases, you should call an ambulance.