Gastroscopy - a procedure of examination of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. It is performed by thin, flexible fiber-optic instrument that is introduced into the intestine through the mouth. This examination allows the doctor to detect damage to the inner lining of the esophagus or stomach, and gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer.
The procedure is painless, but unpleasant enough; gastroscopy usually before the patient is given a mild sedative.
In some cases, do without sedatives - usually asks the patient not to give him drugs, as otherwise it all day will not be able to drive a car and do the job that requires high concentration of attention.
How is a gastroscopy
After explaining the procedure, a specialist with the help of the sprayer will cause the rear of the throat, a local anesthetic. The tool, which is used in gastroscopy, similar to that used for anesthesia dentistry. It numbs the throat and swallowing difficult. Then, as a rule, the patient is given a sedative - after receiving a person is fully conscious. Thereafter, the patient lies on his left side, the doctor puts him in the mouth end of the gastroscope and asked to swallow it; It feels like it's swallowing a large piece of food.
To survey was most effective, the physician can enter the stomach some air. This may cause discomfort or even a burp - the normal side effects of this procedure.
Then the doctor will carefully study the wall of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum, to determine the cause of the symptoms. Usually it takes about 10-15 minutes.
What is a gastroscopy
Gastroscopy allows the physician to fully explore the gastric mucosa, and see irritation, lesions or tumors. Gastroscopy is effective and is now used in some cases instead of X-rays. It is believed that gastroscopy is much more accurate and safer than X-rays.
With the help of gastroscopy doctor can take samples and take photographs of the mucous membrane. Most modern gastroscopes display images on large screens, allowing you to carefully examine the mucosa. Furthermore, it is possible to record survey to further follow the changing condition of the patient.
Sometimes gastroscopy prescribed to patients who complain of symptoms similar to symptoms usually indigestion. Only in rare cases, these symptoms affect the cancer, but this possibility can not be ruled out. Thus, gastroscopy can also be used for the diagnosis of very dangerous diseases.
How else used gastroscopy
In some violations by a gastroscope only examine the esophagus - in this case the procedure is called esophagoscopy.
Sometimes using gastroscopy biopsy of the small intestine - in most cases it is required to eliminate such diseases as celiac
Celiac disease - not quite intestinal pathology
Any medical procedure can potentially cause complications. In practice, a gastroscopy is very safe and related complications are extremely rare.
What can be seen with the help of gastroscopy
With gastroscopy possible to study in detail the inner surface of the body: the change in its topography, thickness and running folds mucosal vascular pattern and so on.
In the diagnosis of diseases of the stomach gastroscopy significantly superior to all other methods. It is the leading method in the detection of gastric cancer
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in the early stages it is important in recognition of gastritis, erosions, ulcers and polyps, including those with very small dimensions and therefore is not visible on X-ray.
During the gastroscopy biopsy can - take a piece of tissue for research, take a picture of the inner surface of the test body. You can also hold a series of remedial measures: remove the foreign body, to remove small tumors and polyps, cauterize bleeding blood vessel (eg, gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer 12), enter directly into the site of inflammation medication and so on.
Gastroscope is a long, thin, flexible tube with a lens at one end. A detailed, clear images from the device is transmitted to the TV screen and can then be printed using the printer. Gastroscope may be under the control of, safely, to be held in the upper digestive tract, to carefully investigate its inner surface.
Modern gastroscopes have a small diameter, are well managed and have expressed flexibility. Optics they can be located on the side (gastroduodenoscopy) or end of the device (esophagogastroduodenoscopy).
Contraindications for gastroscopy are:
- aneurysm (expansion rack to the wall thinning) of the aorta;
- acute cerebrovascular (stroke) and coronary (myocardial infarction), blood circulation;
- serechno severe diseases of the circulatory system, including severe stage of hypertension;
- hemophilia (a bleeding disorder and a tendency to bleeding);
- severe mental disorders;
- a pronounced curvature of the spine;
- frequently recurring attacks of asthma;
- acute gastritis with frequent vomiting.
When using the gastroscope with side optics research is contraindicated in patients with diverticula (saccular protrusions of the wall), ulcers and varicose veins
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Relative contraindications to gastroscopy are the general poor health at the time of the study, advanced age, acute inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, hypertensive crisis
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How is a gastroscopy
Research is carried out strictly on an empty stomach (you can drink just a little plain water), the night before, at least for 10-12 hours prior to the procedure, let alone a light dinner. During the day, it is better not to smoke. The doctor must know what drugs a patient takes, and if he has an allergy.
Gastroscope is inserted through the mouth via a special nagubnik that keeps in the mouth the patient in the supine position on the left side, after local anesthesia of the pharynx (to remove the gag reflex). To ensure good visibility, the investigated cavity blown air. The whole procedure is painless.
After studies can not drink or eat for half an hour. After the capture of tissue for analysis (biopsy) was taken during the day the food should not be hot.
It is possible (but extremely rare) complications are perforation of the wall of the test body (perforation) and the bleeding resulting from damage to the blood vessel. Bleeding can be stopped during the study cauterizing the blood vessel perforation and require emergency surgery.
Gastroscopy - informative and relatively safe method of research, which in practice almost never gives complications.