Chronic hepatitis - a disease that can develop, both independently and be a consequence of suffering acute hepatitis. In any case, patients with chronic hepatitis should always be under the supervision of a doctor and strictly follow all recommendations.
Causes of chronic hepatitis B and its species
Chronic hepatitis - is an inflammatory process in the liver, which lasts at least six months. The cause of chronic hepatitis is often a viral infection - hepatitis B, C, D. These viruses have a direct damaging effect on the liver cells (hepatocytes). Contagious chronic hepatitis? Chronic viral hepatitis is contagious, the infection is transmitted from an infected person to a healthy sexual contact and through blood transfusion when it is, organ transplants, as well as inadequate use of sterilized medical instruments.
Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
liver toxicity may develop in lesions of hepatocytes drugs, alcohol (chronic alcoholic hepatitis) or various chemicals. All these agents have a direct destructive effect on liver cells. Chronic hepatotoxicity may occur when taking drugs such as halothane, methyldopa, isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, phenytoin, zidovudine, ketoconazole, tetracycline, clarithromycin, nifedipine, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and hormonal contraceptives. Chronic toxic hepatitis
Toxic hepatitis - the impact of harmful substances on the liver
Chronic hepatitis may also occur on the background of autoimmune processes, wherein the immune system "learns" the liver cells and produces antibodies thereto, which destroy them. Today, we found that chronic autoimmune hepatitis develops in certain congenital disorders.
Chronic cryptogenic hepatitis - a liver disease with characteristic changes in the liver of chronic hepatitis B with the exclusion of viral, autoimmune and drug causes of its development. That is, in fact, is a hepatitis of unspecified origin.
Chronic reactive hepatitis
Reactive hepatitis - a liver reaction to severe extrahepatic disease
It develops on the background of severe long proceeding diseases of other organs and systems. He is often referred to as non-specific, secondary hepatitis.
Classification of chronic hepatitis on the specifics of the disease:
- chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH) - sound flowing, usually without complications, sometimes referred to as inactive, but it is not quite true;
- chronic active hepatitis (CAH) - aggressively proceeding with large areas of necrosis and progressive destruction of liver cells, often turns into cirrhosis of the liver with a partial loss of its function.
There are also chronic cholestatic hepatitis - a disease that occurs in violation of the outflow of bile at the small bile ducts.
Symptoms of chronic hepatitis
Acute and chronic hepatitis have similar symptoms, but the symptoms of chronic hepatitis B is usually less pronounced. They may be different, it all depends on the causes of the disease, its characteristics and duration of the course and extent of damage to the liver cells. Common symptoms are weakness, fatigue, heaviness, or pain in the right upper quadrant, anorexia, nausea, intolerance to fatty foods, excessive bleeding, occasionally itchy skin, joint pain
Joint pain - how to understand what is going on?
and muscles, fever.
Exacerbation of chronic hepatitis accompanied by increased itching of the skin, the appearance of jaundice staining of the skin and mucous membranes (especially pronounced yellow sclera - is the earliest sign of exacerbation), dark urine and feces discolored. It is also a sign of acute liver enlargement and increased her pain.
Chronic hepatitis in children is most often a persistent character, are replaced by periods of exacerbation of clinical and laboratory remission. Exacerbations are more often 1-2 times a year, at least - more than two times a year. But it is possible and continuously relapsing course (chronic active hepatitis), it is more common in acute onset of the disease. But more often chronic hepatitis in children develop slowly, with a slow increase of symptoms and exacerbations associated with acute respiratory infections.
Diagnosis of chronic hepatitis
Although the characteristics of the disease, the diagnosis of "chronic hepatitis," must be confirmed by additional research data. ALWAYS ultrasonography (US) of the abdomen, if necessary, under ultrasound done percutaneous liver biopsy with subsequent histological examination of tissue taken.
From the laboratory tests are carried out: general blood and urine tests, blood tests on liver enzymes and bilirubin, analysis autoantibodies.
How to treat chronic hepatitis
During exacerbation of chronic hepatitis treatment begin with the appointment of bed rest and proper nutrition. A diet for chronic hepatitis should exclude products that have a negative effect on the liver. Drug therapy depends on the kind and degree of hepatitis activity so chosen physician individually.
Prevention of chronic hepatitis - is prevention of viral infections and the elimination of any toxic effects on the liver. If the patient is vital drugs with hepatotoxic, their purpose should be accompanied by regular liver function tests.