Urogenital smear - a simple, but important study which helps to identify the different pathology of the female reproductive system. Normal leukocytes in the smear indicates the absence of inflammation. If the number of white blood cells increases, the need to undergo further examination. This will help determine the cause of the changes in the analysis.
Urogenital smear: it
It is a fast, but fairly informative procedure. Using such an analysis can identify the presence of any inflammatory processes and pathogens in women.
In the study of the material is required to determine the amount of smear squamous epithelium, leukocytes and lactobacilli. Also in the smear can detect Trichomonas
Trichomonas - leads to infertility
, Cocci fungus Candida and other microorganisms.
How is research
The procedure involves two phases. First performed smear test. Then, a laboratory study of biological material obtained. For the results of the analysis are accurate, you need to follow a few rules before visiting the gynecologist swabs:
- For one or two days of sexual intercourse should be avoided;
- Health genitals should be done only with the help of warm water;
- A few days stop taking the drugs, the use of which has been agreed with the doctor;
- Last urination should not be less than two or three hours before the intake material.
Swabs are taken using a disposable spatula of three points (probable foci of infection) from the vagina, cervix and urethra.
Gynecologist resulting material is uniformly applied on a glass slide. Thus smears from different areas assigned to the corresponding notation using letters:
- «V» - a swab from the vagina;
- «C» - smear from the cervix;
- «U» - smear from the urethra.
Thereafter the material is dried and sent to the laboratory. The doctors who work there, using special dyes perform color smear, and then study them under the microscope.
Norma leukocytes in the smear
The number of white blood cells - a very important component of this study. In the normal amount of white blood cells in a smear from the vagina should not exceed ten cells in a smear from the cervix - 15 cells in a smear from the urethra - no more than five cells.
If white blood cells below these values, then it indicates absence of inflammation and pathological changes in the state of the reproductive system. In inflammatory processes determined by the number of leukocytes increases. The more of these cells revealed the worse the condition which caused similar changes in the analysis. White blood cells in severe cases, can fill the entire field of view under the microscope in the study of stroke.
Cause and symptoms increase in the number of white blood cells
The number of white blood cells in the smear may exceed the rate at various conditions. These include:
- Urethritis (inflammation of the mucous membranes of the urethra);
- Colpitis (inflammatory changes in the vaginal mucosa);
- Salpingo (inflammatory changes in fallopian tubes and ovaries);
- Cervicitis (inflammation of the lining of the cervical canal);
- Endometritis (inflammation of the endometrium - the inner lining of the uterus);
- Thrush (Candida);
- Intestinal dysbiosis;
- Dysbacteriosis vagina;
- Diseases that are transmitted through sexual contact (syphilis, gonorrhea
Gonorrhea - self-ruled
, Chlamydia and others);
- Genital cancers.
Many women pathological conditions listed are not accompanied by any symptoms. But often in patients with a high content in a smear of white blood cells are the following symptoms:
- Pain in the pelvis;
- Unpleasant smell of vaginal discharge
- Menstrual irregularities;
- Itching in the genital area;
- Unsuccessful attempts to get pregnant women;
- A large number of cheesy discharge;
- Urination disorders.
If the reasons for the increase of leukocytes
White blood cells as the basis of immunity
Left untreated, it can develop a number of adverse effects. Pathological changes can lead to:
- Chronic diseases of the sexual sphere;
- Hormonal disorders;
- Damage to the kidneys and urinary tract;
- Erosion of the cervix;
- Premature termination of pregnancy;
- Fading pregnancy;
- Ovarian function;
Identifying the causes and treatment
Treatment can be started only if will find out the cause of changes in the urogenital smear. To do this, the doctor prescribes a number of additional studies. For example, these include:
- Bacteriological sowings biological material. At the same time determine the detection sensitivity of microbes to various antibacterial agents;
- PCR diagnostics (polymerase chain reaction). The study is based on the detection of particles of genetic material of microorganisms in the studied biological material;
- Blood and urine tests;
- Pelvic ultrasound.
After further diagnosis expert picks treatment. It may include:
- Application of local resources (e.g., antifungal and antiseptic agents) in the form of suppositories, ointments or creams;
- The use of antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents inside;
- Strengthening the immune defenses of the female body;
- Vitamins or inside their appointment by injection;
- Restoration of the normal flora of the vagina and intestine;
- It can be used to protect the hepatic liver tissue from the adverse effects of medicines.
If urogenital smear the number of white blood cells exceeds normal levels, then the doctor prescribes a number of additional studies. Recent aimed at finding the cause of the changes and clarification of the diagnosis. After that, the expert selects treatment based on features of the disease.