Hyperplasia endometrial cancer and endometriosis have the same underlying cause - excess female hormone estrogen. Estrogens promote proliferation of the inner uterine mucosa (endometrium), which leads to the formation of precancerous disease endometrial hyperplasia or endometrial proliferation of sites in other organs and tissues (endometriosis).
Causes of endometrial hyperplasia and endometriosis
Hyperplasia (overgrowth) of the endometrium occurs in disorders of the first half of the menstrual cycle due to an excess of female hormones estrogen under the influence of which the endometrium is growing rapidly and is long (proliferation phase).
Typically, this condition is accompanied by a lack of the female hormone second half of the menstrual cycle, progesterone
Progesterone - norm and pathology
That normally should suppress proliferation and promote secretion phase when endometrial cells starts to separate secret prepares the uterus for the introduction of an embryo. If this occurs, the endometrium continues to increase for a long time (extension of the first phase of the menstrual cycle and rare menses). Then sprawling rejected the endometrium, which is accompanied by a strong menstrual bleeding with significant blood loss. In some cases, estrogen allocated waves for a long time, resulting in not so abundant but prolonged bleeding.
Endometrial hyperplasia occurs under the influence of various factors, disruptive neuroendocrine system cerebral cortex - the hypothalamus - pituitary - ovary. It may be difficult neuro-psychological stress, stress, traumatic brain injury, diseases of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, endocrine diseases (eg, obesity, diabetes), gynecological infectious-inflammatory processes, uterine fibroids, polycystic ovarian disease, abortion, conditions after gynecological surgery and so on.
At the heart of endometriosis are the same reasons. When rejection overgrown endometrial bleeding and there is a strong cast of individual cells of the endometrium with the blood flow to various organs and tissues where they grow and follow the same cyclical changes as the rest of the endometrium. But in order to develop endometriosis, hormonal disorders few, should also be an immunity. The fact that in normal casting endometrial cells into the surrounding tissue occurs very often, but the immune system destroys the cells, preventing them to get accustomed to other tissues. Only when the immune system is not working, developing endometriosis.
Endometrial hyperplasia is manifested in the form of rare very strong menstrual bleeding or not such plentiful, but prolonged bleeding (menorrhagia). Sometimes it can occur and bleeding not related to the menstrual cycle - metrorrhagia. Regular blood loss leading to iron-deficiency anemia, which is manifested by weakness, fatigue, decreased performance, paleness, headaches, dizziness, fainting.
Most women with endometrial hyperplasia menstrual disorders in the form of bleeding combined with infertility and other endocrine diseases (obesity, diabetes, thyroid disease), as well as high blood pressure, and impaired liver function.
For endometriosis also characterized by menorrhagia
Menorrhagia (menorrhagia) - excessive blood loss
and metrorrhagia, but, in addition, endometriosis is always accompanied by severe pain in the abdomen
Abdominal pain: when to sound the alarm?
during menstruation and bleeding. Regular blood loss leading to iron-deficiency anemia.
If you suspect endometrial hyperplasia
Hyperplasia endometrial cancer - requires timely detection and treatment
or endometriosis held:
- gynecological examination;
- ultrasonography (US) of the pelvic organs, including the uterus and its appendages, both through the anterior abdominal wall and using a vaginal probe; it reveals abnormal proliferation of the mucous membrane of the uterus, and changes in other organs;
- blood analysis on hormones;
- hysteroscopy - endoscopic examination using an optical instrument (hysteroscope), allows for multiple increase good look at the structure of the uterine mucosa and take a small piece of tissue from the most suspicious areas for histological examination to exclude malignancy; A similar study can be performed using a laparoscope, which is inserted through a small hole on the anterior abdominal wall;
- hysterosalpingography - x-ray of the uterus with appendages using a contrast agent, which allows to estimate the extent of endometriosis in the wall of the uterus and the fallopian tubes, as well as to assess the degree of tubal patency;
- magnetic resonance or computed tomography (CT or MRI).