Ovarian cyst - a cavity bounded by a capsule and filled with fluid. Many cysts are completely normal (called functional). These cysts are formed as a result of ovulation (release of the egg from the ovaries). Functional cysts are reduced over time, and dry out, the process takes from one to three months.
Upon detection of functional cysts gynecologist appoints re-examination three months, to make sure that the cyst is reduced in size and vanishes. In some cases, the doctor will recommend to take birth control
How to take the pill: carefully read the instructions
tablets, to prevent ovulation
Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?
. When ovulation occurs, functional cysts are formed.
In women of menopausal age who have stopped menstruating, functional cysts are formed.
If this does happen, the doctor sends the patient to a sonogram (echogram). Further advice of a doctor depends on the patient's age, type of cyst on the sonogram and the presence of symptoms (pain, swelling, constipation and satiety when consumed even a small amount of food).
What is a sonogram (echogram)?
Sonogram - a graphical representation of the sound vibrations. In fact, this spectral-temporal representation of sound. On the sonogram gynecologist can examine in detail the ovaries. Sonogram of the ovaries in two ways - through the abdomen and through the vagina. Both methods are completely painless.
Performing sonograms takes less than 30 minutes. On the sonogram gynecologist see what it looks like and what a cyst the size of it, that will help him prescribe the right treatment.
What other examinations and tests administered?
In addition to a sonogram, a gynecologist often prescribe a blood test to determine the level of the protein CA-125. Sometimes this blood test is prescribed to women with PCOS
Polycystic ovaries - watch their menstruation
To determine if the cysts are not cancerous. Normal levels of CA-125 in serum of less than 35.
However, this analysis is not always possible to accurately determine the malignancy of cysts.
For example, women who have subsequently been identified ovarian cancer, CA-125 levels remained in the normal range. Furthermore, CA-125 levels can sometimes be abnormally high in women of childbearing age, even if they do not have ovarian cancer. For this reason, a blood test to determine the level of CA-125 usually prescribed only for women who are at risk of developing ovarian cancer.
Do I need surgery to remove the cyst?
The answer to this question depends on several factors, such as age, menstrual cycle, brush size, its form and the disease symptoms.
If the menstrual cycle is not broken, and the cyst is functional, the operation does not threaten you. If the cyst does not decrease after several menstrual periods, and if, on the contrary, it only increased in size and the sonogram does not look like a functional cyst, gynecologist prescribe surgery to remove the cyst. There are many different types of ovarian cysts in women of childbearing age that require surgery. Fortunately, in this age, cysts are almost always benign (the threat of ovarian cancer is minimal).
Surgery is indicated post-menopausal women. Although ovarian cancer is relatively rare, the risk of developing this disease increases in women aged 50-70 years. Diagnosis of cancer at an early stage allows to achieve the best outcomes.
What kind of operation is prescribed for the removal of cysts?
To remove a benign cyst the size of a small (no more than plums) doctor prescribes laparoscopy
Laparoscopy - why is it necessary?
. This procedure is performed using the laparoscope - an optical device with a light guide. A laparoscope is introduced into the abdominal cavity through a small hole (cut) just above or just below the navel. Through the laparoscope the doctor sees the abdominal organs. Often the cyst is removed through a small incision in the growth of pubic hair.
If the cyst is too big and can not be removed by laparoscopy, or if it looks suspicious, appoint laparotomy. At laparotomy performed the autopsy of the abdominal cavity and remove the cyst or the entire ovary. This operation is performed under general anesthesia. In the process of finding a cyst operation and check whether it is malignant. If so, the surgeon may remove both ovaries, uterus, adipose tissue fold (stuffing box) and some lymph nodes. It is important to discuss the situation before the operation. The doctor must also inform the patient of the risks of each type of surgery, complications and duration of the recovery period.