- Lack of calcium in the body - is fraught with attacks of tetany
- What happens when a lack of
The role of calcium in the human body
Calcium refers to alkaline earth metals and has a high biochemical activity. The body is about 1, 5 kg calcium. It is a major structural element of bones and teeth, a part of the nails, hair, soft tissue, extracellular fluids and blood plasma. Calcium is also an important component of the blood coagulation system, it maintains the right balance of salts in the human body.
Among the most important functions in a living organism is its participation in the various enzyme systems, including providing muscle contraction and transmission of nerve impulses that modify the activity of hormones and so on. Calcium also affects the permeability of the cells to tissues of potassium and sodium, has a stabilizing effect on the membranes of nerve cells.
The source of calcium is food. With food adult can obtain about 10 g of calcium pregnant women - 15 g, nursing mothers - to 20 g Calcium from food mainly in the form of insoluble salts, which dissolve in the human stomach by using a gastric juice, and then exposed to bile acids, transforming it into a digestible form.
What happens when a lack of calcium in the body
The human body absorbs about half of the calcium from food. Lack of calcium (hypocalcemia) can cause a number of pathological changes in the body, the main of which is tetany.
Tetany - is increased neuromuscular excitability, due to a decrease in concentration in the blood and interstitial fluid ionized calcium (Ca ++), which manifests itself fits of seizures of individual muscle groups. Most often it occurs at tetany total calcium deficiency caused by lack of the parathyroid glands. In this case, the reduced production of primary parathyroid hormone (PTH), which reduces the amount of calcium and an increase in the content of phosphorus in the blood, which causes seizure.
Other causes of hypocalcemia are deficient in vitamin D (such as rickets
Rickets - all about vitamins
children), digestive diseases, accompanied by diarrhea
Diarrhea (diarrhea) - a familiar nuisance
(loss of calcium and a violation of his absorption), lack of calcium supplementation in pregnant and breastfeeding women, renal failure, inborn errors of phosphorus-calcium metabolism.
Tetany is associated with changes in the acid-base exchange in the alkaline side, which occurs when anacatharsis (gastro-kishechogo tract toxicosis pregnant and so on), when administered to patients with a large amount of soda solution, in poisoning of oxalic acid (in this case, form insoluble salts calcium) and other.
How does tetany
There are obvious and latent tetany. A typical attack of tetany starts with precursors in the form of paresthesias - sensory disturbances (such as "pins and needles" or numbness in the body), and then begin muscle twitching, and then tonic (continuous) convulsion of individual muscle groups.
Characterized by a so-called karpopedalny spasm: twitching muscles of the lower limbs and flexors. When convulsions in the hands of the upper extremities are given to the body, bent at the elbows, hands are lowered, the thumb bent given to the IV and V fingers ("hand obstetrician"). If seizures begin in the legs, feet and toes are in plantar flexion, the sole takes the form of the chute. In convulsions of the facial muscles, it takes a characteristic expression lips parted ("fish mouth"), Semi-underslung eyelids, eyebrows reduced, the reduction of masticatory muscles causes a sardonic smile. In severe cases, seizures may spread to the muscles of the trunk and the diaphragm, which causes bronchospasm and respiratory failure. In children, this may cause a spasm of respiratory arrest
Stop breathing (apnea) during sleep - upper airway obstruction
Hidden forms of tetany is characterized by absence seizures. But while there may be paresthesia and arching pain in the muscles of the limbs.
Treatment tetany occurs when a lack of calcium
Tetany attack removed intravenous administration of 10 ml of 10% sodium gluconate or calcium chloride. At the same time prescribe medications, relieves anxiety (eg, relanium). Further treatment - a treatment of the underlying disease that caused the lack of calcium in the body.
As calcium has a relatively low bioavailability (from food is absorbed only half of it), in order to maintain normal metabolic processes necessary to its additional revenue in the form of dairy products, nutritional supplements and so on.