Everyone knows that men and women are constructed differently. The main difference between the female from the male is the ability to conceive, carry and give birth to a child. And of great importance in these processes has a menstrual cycle. Unfortunately, not all female representatives understand the medical terms related to the physiology of the body. One of the most common questions asked by the doctor at the reception - what a menstrual cycle? Many people are confused about the definition of "menstrual cycle" and "menstruation" and consider them synonymous. However, menstruation - this is just the visible proof of the monthly changes in the body.
The concept of the menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle (in Latin menstruus - month) - a series of cyclical changes occurring monthly in women, which are aimed at conception. Moreover, periodic changes apply not only to the reproductive system, but also all other vital systems (cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine and others).
Duration of the menstrual cycle, each woman is different and an average of 28 days (21 to 35 days). Top of the menstrual cycle is the first day of menstruation, and the entire menstrual cycle is the time interval from the first day of the month before the first day of the following. The normal menstrual cycle is considered to be a regular cycle, with a deviation in one direction or another by no more than three days. The parameters of the menstrual cycle include:
- Duration of menstruation (three to seven days);
- the amount of bleeding
Spotting - it is important to rule out pathology
(not more than 80 ml for the entire month period);
Menstruation - is repeated at regular time intervals (about once a month) bleeding from the genital tract. Monthly present in women during the reproductive period, from the time of puberty
Puberty child - stages of a complex path
and ending with menopause. Normally, no menstruation in pregnant and breastfeeding women. Menstruation - is the peak of the menstrual cycle and shows no conception occurred. Menstrual flow contains pieces desquamated layer of the endometrium and blood.
Menarche (first menstruation) begins in girls aged 11-15 years. Regular ovulatory menstrual cycle is established through 1-1, 5 years after the first month. At the time of occurrence of menarche is influenced by many factors: heredity, ethnicity, climatic conditions, acceleration, especially food, disease and so on.
Stop menstruation to the beginning of menopause. Menopause - is the date of last menstrual period, which comes to an average of 51-52 years. By this age, a woman's body happens fading functions of the reproductive system, is gradually reduced production of sex hormones, and the number of eggs in the ovaries decreases.
The phases of the menstrual cycle
There are four (two suspended) phase of the menstrual cycle:
- Follicular (proliferative) phase
Under the influence of FSH, which is produced in the anterior lobe of the pituitary, ovarian starts to produce estrogens and progesterone
Progesterone - norm and pathology
(and the amount of estrogen prevails). Estrogens stimulate the growth and maturation of follicles, of which later determined the main (dominant) follicle. By the end of the follicular phase (approximately the middle of the menstrual cycle) ovulation occurs.
Ovulatory phase lasts three days. The pituitary begins to produce luteinising hormone in the blood flow which enhances the secretion of progesterone. Under the influence of progesterone and estrogen follicle ruptures and the chief of his pelvis leaves mature egg. This process is called ovulation
Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?
Luteal phase is characterized by a predominance of progesterone, which, firstly, are synthesized through the pituitary luteinizing hormone, and secondly, is secreted by the corpus luteum, formed at the site of the ruptured follicle. The secretory phase changes occur in the lining of the uterus necessary for implantation of a fertilized egg.
Phase desquamation (menstruation) - a rejection prepared for the introduction of egg functional layer of the endometrium and no evidence of pregnancy.